Conflict Resolution Education

Research and Evaluation Bibliography

Compiled by Marsha S. Blakeway

Second Edition, February 2000

Introduction

Acknowledgments

What is included in the bibliography

How to find full text copies of listed items

A work-in-progress

Entries Listed Alphabetically by Author

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Introduction

In the spring of 1997, while doing other consulting work at the National Institute of Dispute Resolution (NIDR), I began a volunteer project of organizing hard copy versions of the research reports that were in the NIDR and Conflict Resolution Education Network (CREnet) files and creating a publishable bibliography with annotations. The short-term purpose of this bibliographic listing was to use as a basis for National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution (NCPCR) and CREnet conference sessions on research and evaluation. The long-term purpose was to provide a document that could help answer some of the many questions that those of us working in this field have about conflict resolution and peer mediation programs by disseminating more broadly the results of research on conflict resolution education and practice in schools.

This is the second edition of the bibliographic listing of reports, journal articles, conference paper presentation, dissertations or academic papers, ERIC Digests, and other documents that provide information on research and evaluation of school-based conflict resolution. The first edition was co-authored by Dan Kmitta and published as a Special Report by NIDR. This new edition includes the items listed in the first edition plus about 250 additional entries including relevant ERIC documents and dissertation abstracts. Many of the entries have annotations written by the authors, by others who have assisted with this project or by myself. This collection includes a number of unpublished project evaluation reports prepared for schools systems or for funders; in some cases, journal articles have been written based on these reports. It covers research reports beginning in 1987 to present.

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to those who have helped in various ways with this project along the way: Carolyne Ashton, Marge Baker, Juliana Birkhoff, Victoria Blakeway, Phillippe DeGuise, Cathy Diekmann, Judy Filner, Doug Harbit, Ian Harris, Stephanie Jones, Tricia Jones, Paul Kingery, Dan Kmitta, Dana Milburn, Linden Nelson, Deborah Perkins-Gough, Kathleen Shepherd, Jinnie Spiegler, Mary Starpoli, KristaTimlin and others who have graciously sent copies of their reports.

This project builds on and is a continuation the National Association of Mediation in Education (NAME) and CREnet organizational and individual projects regarding research and evaluation. Some of those events are the following:

What is included in the bibliography

One of the difficulties of a project like this is deciding which items to include. I look for affirmative answers to these questions regarding inclusion:

1. Is the project being evaluated a school-based conflict resolution project? Is the question leading the research related to school-based conflict resolution education or practice? In my mindís eye, I drew a circle within which I put conflict resolution projects; sometimes this circle overlaps other circles that include violence prevention, social and emotional learning, peace education, diversity education, educational reform or others. In the first edition, I fairly carefully limited the list to reports of projects in schools that include a conflict resolution or problem-solving process component that includes those with the "problem" in the decision-making process that seeks to resolve that problem. These projects include many other kinds of activities, but what makes it a conflict resolution project, in my mind, is the inclusion of mediation, negotiation, collaborative problem solving or other problem-solving process component. These parameters are not always tight: in some cases researchers or others have considered their work to be conflict resolution work when it seems to be primarily limited to anger management or communication skills - and I've included it. In this second edition, I have drawn a bigger circle to include more on peace education and other areas, as well as more on early childhood and higher education projects.

2. If the article is primarily a program report, does it include information on program evaluation or research? This list does not, in general, include program descriptions that do not include a report of evaluation or research.

3. Does this report include information practitioners and researchers might find relevant or helpful in understanding the complexities of school-based conflict resolution education and practice? Does it include relevant survey information, literature reviews, or a good bibliography?

How to find full text copies of listed items

You will find copies of many of the journal articles in university or other public libraries. Contacting the authors/principal investigators, often university-based, of these projects has always been the main way to get copies of unpublished research and evaluation work as needed. The principal investigators may also be able to give you more information about data collection instruments, etc.

ERIC Digests and ERIC abstracts of other documents are in the public domain and some of those included here are listed with web citations. ERIC's website (www.accesseric.org) is a wonderful resource - even it still seems somewhat confusing to navigate the different sites and types of documents. The information on the website is useful for navigating this huge resource. More info about the documents in this list can be found by searching the Eric database using the ERIC No. in the website search function at: http://ericir.syr.edu/Eric/.

The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission from them. Many university libraries have the Dissertation Abstracts Index in "hard copy" volumes listing dissertation information from 1861 forward, in addition to having "on line" or in-house computer search capacity. (The Note beginning with "DAI" that is included in most of the entries is the citation for the information in the hard copy volumes.) Many universities have microfiche or paper versions of dissertations - certainly of those written by their students. Copies of dissertations may be obtained for a fee by addressing your request to Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company (formerly UMI), 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 481-6-1346 USA. Telephone (734) 761-7400; E-mail: info@bellhowell.infolearning.com; Web-page www.bellhowell.infolearning.com. In addition, the website includes abstracts for the current and past year only in a searchable format and the first 24 pages of the dissertation itself to preview. Dissertation authors and titles, etc., are listed in UPPER CASE because they are formatted that way in computer searches of the Dissertation Abstracts database.

A work-in-progress:

This will continue to be a "work-in-progress". Thanks to those of you who have sent or referred me to relevant studies, this may be the most inclusive list currently available; however, it is not a complete or comprehensive listing of conflict resolution education and practice research or project evaluation. Using the figures from the National Center for Education Statistics report on school violence, my estimate is that 35,000 - 40,000 public schools have a program that includes student involvement in resolving student conduct problems, such as a dispute or conflict resolution or mediation, or student court program. [see listing: National Center for Education Statistics, 1998 #98] It seems very likely to me that there are evaluations of many more programs than the 300+ represented by this bibliography. I hope you will send me copies of your research or evaluation project results or let me know about work that is not included here, but should be. My snail mail address is 608 Fifth Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20002; email: mblakeway@igc.org.

Overall, these reports represent the energy and truly uncountable hours of conversation, planning and caring attention by many, many program designers and implementers, evaluators and researchers, peacemakers all, who wish to make a positive contribution to the lives of children, their families, and their school communities. Best wishes to all of you who are working in this exciting field.

Marsha S. Blakeway

January 31, 2000

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conflict Resolution Education Research and Evaluation Bibliography

Compiled by Marsha S. Blakeway

Second Edition, January 2000

 

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Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 209

Author: Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

Year: 1998

Title: Constructivism in Teacher Education: Considerations for Those who Would Link Practice to Theory. ERIC Digest

City: Washington, D.C.

Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education

Pages: 5

Call Number: ED426986 98

Keywords: P-12 students; teacher education students

Abstract: "In recent years, constructivism has received considerable attention in education scholarship, practitioner preparation, and policy formation (MacKinnon & Scarff-Seatter, 1997; Richardson, 1997; Teets & Starnes, 1996). It has been heralded as a more natural, relevant, productive, and empowering framework for instructing both P-12 and teacher education students (Cannella & Reiff, 1994). This Digest identifies major forms of constructivism and considers issues and challenges that surface when implementing constructivist approaches to preservice and inservice teacher education. "Constructivism is an epistemology, a learning or meaning-making theory, that offers an explanation of the nature of knowledge and how human beings learn. It maintains that individuals create or construct their own new understandings or knowledge through the interaction of what they already know and believe and the ideas, events, and activities with which they come in contact (Cannella & Reiff, 1994; Richardson, 1997). Knowledge is acquired through involvement with content instead of imitation or repetition (Kroll & LaBoskey, 1996). Learning activities in constructivist settings are characterized by active engagement, inquiry, problem solving, and collaboration with others. Rather than a dispenser of knowledge, the teacher is a guide, facilitator, and co-explorer who encourages learners to question, challenge, and formulate their own ideas, opinions, and conclusions. "Correct" answers and single interpretations are de-emphasized. " Author

Notes: +

URL: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed426986.html

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 1

Author: Aber, J. Lawrence; Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.; Samples, Faith; Chaudry, Nina

Year: 1996

Title: The Evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: An Overview

Journal: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 12(5): 82-90

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools - 15, urban schools, students - 9000, multiple (4) models - comparison

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 2

Author: Aber, J.L.; Jones, S.M.; Brown, J.L..; Chaudry, N. ; Samples, F.

Year: 1998

Title: Resolving conflict creatively: Evaluating the developmental effects of a school-based violence prevention program in neighborhood and classroom context.

Journal: Development and Psychopathology 10(2): 187-213

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools - 15, urban schools, students - 9000, multiple (4) models - comparison

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 210

Author: Aber, J. Lawrence

Year: 1998

Title: Evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP): Project Summary

City: New York

Institution: National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University School of Public Health, 154 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032

Pages: 16

Date: October 1998, received

Type: project summary

Keywords: conflict resolution

intercultural understanding

Abstract: This summary includes program description and evaluation description. It also includes brief descriptions of and references for instruments used: Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale (NOBAGS), What I Think (Fantasies Measure), Home Interview Measure, Social Problem-Solving Measure, Seattle Personality Inventory, Teacher Check-List, Social Competence Scale, Social Health Profile, and Teacher Post Ratings. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 211

Author: Aber, J. Lawrence; Brown, Joshua L.; Henrich, Christopher C.

Year: 1999

Title: Teaching Conflict Resolution: An Effective School-Based Approach to Violence Prevention: Research Brief

City: New York

Institution: National Center for Children in Poverty

Pages: 20

Date: September 1999

Abstract: See related item in this document: Roderick, Tom, 1998, Evaluating the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program

Notes: +An electronic version of this report is available on the NCCP web site (http://www.nccp.org) as well as detailed information about NCCP, its projects, and other publications. For a paper version, please contact NCCP, Attn.: Publications, 154 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032; Tel: 212-304-7100; FAX: 212-544-4201; E-mail: nccp@columbia.edu.

URL: http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp/rccp99.html

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 116

Author: ALGERT, NANCY ELIZABETH

Year: 1998

Title: PEER CONFLICT: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG THREE ADOLESCENT GROUPS (CONFLICT RESOLUTION, INCARCERATED, GENERAL EDUCATION STUDENTS, EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED)

University: TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Adviser: PARRISH, LINDA H.

Number of Pages: 278

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9915194

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519); EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533); SOCIOLOGY, CRIMINOLOGY AND PENOLOGY (0627)

Abstract: This study assessed the preferred conflict resolution (CR) modes of adolescents using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI). Specifically, three groups of adolescents, incarcerated youth (TYC), general education students (GE), and adolescents educated in a self-contained public school setting who were identified as emotionally disturbed (ED), were assessed on their responses to a peer conflict scenario. The total sample consisted of 192 subjects between the ages of 13–16 years old. Fifty-eight of the subjects were in the TYC group, 89 were from the GE group, and 45 subjects were in the ED group. Using a Demographic Data Sheet (DDS), demographic characteristics (age, gender, and ethnicity) and conflict resolution information (identified source of CR training, peer conflicts per week, formal practice in CR training, mediation participation, and experience as a peer mediator) was gathered on the subjects. Subjects also completed the TKI and their five conflict mode scores were analyzed by their group membership (TYC, GE, and ED) and by their responses on the DDS questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (i.e. t-tests, plots, multiple regression, and coefficients of determination).

Findings: The findings indicated an overall trend for the majority of the sample to have two primary TKI modes - Avoiding and Competing. These two modes indicated the subjects were low on cooperative CR behavior. Specifically, group membership was statistically significant on the Avoiding mode, with the TYC group having the highest Avoiding mean score. Next, a positive correlation was found between the number of peer conflicts per week and the Competing score for the total group, TYC group, and GE group. The ED group's scores tended to show a negative correlation. The variables of CR training (except for the ED group) and claimed source of CR training were found to be weak predictive variables of TKI mode scores. The ED group, whether they had CR practice or not, had a high TKI Competing Mode. Finally, with the GE group, gender affected the Collaborating Mode score. Ethnicity affected the Accommodating and Competing Mode scores. However all independent variables accounted for very small variances in the TKI mode scores. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/12, p. 4356, Jun 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 212

Author: Allen, Sue Ann

Year of Conference: 1999

Title: "I Can Do It Myself!": Documenting Results in a Whole School Approach to Conflict Resolution Training

Conference Name: National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution

Conference Location: Phoenix, AZ

Date: May 1999

Keywords: conflict resolution

Notes: King County Dispute Resolution Center, Post Office Box 21148, Seattle, Washington 98111; Phone: 206-443-1630

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 117

Author: ALMASI, JANICE FIELD

Year: 1993

Title: THE NATURE OF FOURTH GRADERS' SOCIOCOGNITIVE CONFLICTS IN PEER-LED AND TEACHER-LED DISCUSSIONS OF LITERATURE (LITERATURE DISCUSSIONS)

University: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK

ADVISER: Chair: LINDA B. GAMBRELL

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9327379

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, READING; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Abstract: This study investigated the nature of fourth graders' sociocognitive conflicts in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of narrative text. Ninety-seven students and six classroom teachers participated in the 11-week investigation. Classroom teachers were trained to implement both peer-led and teacher-led conditions to two heterogeneous groups of average and below-average readers in their classrooms. Each group was matched on comprehension and ability to recognize and resolve sociocognitive conflicts as measured by Form A of the Cognitive Conflict Scenario Task (CCST). Treatments were randomly assigned to each group.

Teachers followed identical instructional sequences for both treatments. Story order was counterbalanced. Teachers introduced stories and students set purposes and predictions in their journals on Day One of each week. On Day Two students read the story and recorded reactions in journals. On Day Three students discussed the story according to treatment condition. Discussions were videotaped. One third were randomly selected for transcription. Episodes of sociocognitive conflict were identified and constant-comparative methods used to identify three categories of sociocognitive conflicts: Incongruencies with Self, Incongruencies with Others, and Incongruencies with Text. Each type of conflict was dimensionalized on three factors: origin of conflict, type of conflict, and type of resolution.

Results indicated that students in peer-led groups engaged in substantially more "Incongruencies with Self" that originated from student comments, were textually-implicit, and were resolved by sharing opinions. Students in teacher-led groups engaged primarily in "Incongruencies with Text" that originated from teacher questions, were textually-explicit, and were resolved by telling information. The discourse within each episode was then analyzed. Students in peer-led conditions engaged in significantly greater amounts of verbalization than students in teacher-led conditions. Peer-led discourse was characterized by greater numbers of utterances, responses that were higher in complexity, greater exposure to alternate interpretations of text, greater numbers of questions asked, and dialogue that was sustained via chained and embedded dialogue units. Posttest measures on the CCST indicated that students in the peer-led condition were able to recognize and resolve episodes of conflict better than students in the teacher-led condition. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 54-05A, Page 1741, 00486 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 118

Author: ANTICOLI, DONALD J.

Year: 1997

Title: SCHOOL VIOLENCE INTERVENTION: THE ROLE OF PEER MEDIATION IN DIMINISHING DISPUTANT RECIDIVISM (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY

Major Adviser: LESLIE SKINNER

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9724208

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, INTERCULTURAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The focus of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Peer Mediation Process at Melville High School, a public urban secondary school in the southeastern quadrant of Pennsylvania. Melville High School had Approximately 3,300 students during the 1994-95 school year when the study took place. Peer Mediation was Implemented on a daily basis with the aim of reducing student conflict and helping to prevent students from engaging in repeat conflicts. The process allowed a vehicle for students to resolve their disputes before they reached a violent stage where detention, in-school-suspension, or out-of-school suspension would need to be imposed by a school administrator.

Additionally, the Peer Mediation Process put responsibility on the students to attempt to resolve their own conflicts in a controlled, non-violent alternative conflict resolution mode. The peer mediators were specially trained by Education Mediation Services (E.M.S.) and they were credited with resolving 92% of the student conflicts, without the need to engage adult administrators or disciplinarians.

The sample consisted of sixteen disputants, eight of whom completed peer mediation, and eight of whom did not. They were randomly selected from the 148 disputants who were offered peer mediation in the second semester of the 1994-95 school year. They all completed two instruments--the Piers Harris Children's Self Concept Scale and the Brown and Hammill Behavior Rating Profile for Students. Also, sixteen selected teachers of the disputants completed the Brown & Hammill Behavior Rating Profile for Teachers. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test as incorporated in the Stat Xact statistical analysis package was utilized to perform the analysis of covariance to test the difference between the two groups on the dependent variables--disputant self-concept and disputant aberrant behavior. Test results were analyzed at the.05 level of significance.

In summary, the results showed significant differences between the control and experimental groups on the Piers Harris Physical Appearance & Attributes subscale at the ple .05 level; the experimental group scored higher on this subscale. The Brown & Hammill Student Behavior Rating Profile showed significance at the ple .005 level on the home and school sub-tests. The peer mediation disputants fared better than the non-peer mediation disputants. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-03A, Page 0651, 00179 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 320

Author: Araki, C.T., Takeshita, C., & Kadomoto, L.

Year: 1989

Title: Research Results and Final Report for the Dispute Management in the Schools Project. PCR Working Paper Series

Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa, Program on Conflict Resolution.

Pages: 256

Type: final report, research report

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED312750

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: College School Cooperation; Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher

Education; Interpersonal Communication; Problem Solving; Student Participation; Teacher Student Relationship

IDENTIFIERS: Hawaii State Department of Education; University of Hawaii

Abstract: To develop and test an experimental model of dispute or conflict management through mediation in a school complex, and to examine the basic nature of conflict in schools, the Dispute Management in the Schools Project (DMSP) was conducted. The 3-year mediation project, begun in January 1986, involved an elementary school, an intermediate school, a high school, and five additional nonproject schools for comparison. A case study model was followed. The techniques for gathering information included questionnaires, multiple interviews, three school climate surveys, and school profile reports. Results indicate that the DMSP, as it was developed and installed, had a good start in the three schools. Mediation proved to be effective in managing student/student disputes, but additional research is recommended to determine the effectiveness of mediation in student/school or school/community conflict. The majority of those involved believed that the mediation project had positive effects on the climate of the schools; however, in most cases, the school climate assessments, pattern analyses, and school profile data did not indicate any discernible changes. The project was successful in developing a mediation project model for further use or for expansion. (20 references) (Author/KM)

Notes: ERIC; Some tables may reproduce poorly due to small or faint and broken print. Also partially funded by the Wallace Alexander Gerbode Foundation.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 3

Author: Araki, Charles T

Year: 1990

Title: Dispute Managment in the Schools

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 8(1): 51-61

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 4

Author: Araki, C.T. ; Takeshita, C.

Year: 1991

Title: Students helping students: Dispute management in the schools project, Honolulu, Hawaii

Journal: NASSP Bulletin 75(November): 31-37

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 321

Author: Avery, Patricia G.; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: Teaching for Tolerance of Diverse Beliefs

Journal: Theory into Practice 36(1): 32-38

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ546688

ISSN-0040-5841

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Civics; Conflict Resolution; Consciousness Raising; Curriculum Development; Democratic Values; Grade 9; High School Students; High Schools; Intellectual Freedom; Political Attitudes; Student Attitudes; Urban Schools

IDENTIFIERS: Tolerance

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Discusses research on political tolerance, noting that traditional civics curricula do little to promote tolerance, and that tolerance for diverse beliefs must be learned. The paper describes the development and teaching of a four-week curriculum for tolerance and reflects on the need for educators to foster greater tolerance among young people. (SM)

Notes: ERIC

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 119

Author: BAILEY, GAHAN

Year: 1995

Title: A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DISCIPLINARY REFERRALS AND PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE DURING A FIRST YEAR CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM IN A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Academic Dept.: THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9606279

Abstract: This study explored seventh and eighth graders' perceptions about and responses to conflict and violence in their personal lives before and after the implementation of a conflict resolution program. Additionally, it examined the reasons for and frequency of disciplinary referrals among the subjects in the year before (1994) and the year of (1995) the fulfillment of the conflict resolution program. The average number of subjects was 414 in 1994, and 437 in 1995. For both years, approximately 50% were males and 50% were females; 50% were seventh graders and 50% were eighth graders; and 70% were African-Americans and 30% were Caucasian.

The data collection consisted of a Conflict/Violence Questionnaire that was administered in September 1994, before the conflict resolution program began, and then again in April 1995, at the conclusion of the program implementation. The discipline referral data were collected for January 25, 1994, to April 25, 1994, and again for January 25, 1995, to April 25, 1995. Results of the study indicated several significant main effects for gender and grade, but only one significant main effect for time. There were also two items that produced significant interactions for gender x grade. The discipline referral data produced results revealing a greater frequency of in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, and general referrals after the implementation of the conflict resolution program.

It was concluded that, although the null hypotheses were accepted, there were no significant main effects over time, with the exception of one item. Conflict resolution is an educational program that should be implemented and studied for a longer period of time than one year. The examination of conflict resolution programs should be conducted as a longitudinal study in order to produce results that will show a change in behavior over time. Author

DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-11A, Page 4261, 00105 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 120

Author: BAKER, NORMA JEAN

Year: 1998

Title: IMPACT OF A PEER MEDIATION PROGRAM ON A MIDDLE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT (CONFLICT

RESOLUTION)

Academic Dept.: EDD

University: UNIVERSITY OF LA VERNE

Adviser: CLAGUE, W. DONALD

Number of Pages: 114

Accession Number: AAT 9913981

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519); EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF (0340)

Abstract: Purpose. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the perceptions of administrators and teachers regarding the change in students' behavior relative to: (a) interpersonal conflict and (b) intragroup conflict, as a result of student participation in the program "Fighting Fair, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., for Kids", in selected southern California school districts; (2) determine if there is a significant difference between the perceptions of administrators and of teachers regarding the change in students' behavior relative to: (a) interpersonal conflict and (b) intragroup conflict; (3) determine the perceptions of administrators and teachers in regard to (a) most successful and (b) least successful conflict resolution strategies in the program "Fighting Fair, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., for Kids". (Peace Education Foundation)

Methodology. A written questionnaire, developed by the researcher, was used to gather perceptions of samples of administrators and teachers from selected southern California school districts.

Findings. (1) Administrators and teachers perceived that students, interpersonal and intragroup conflict behaviors had changed as a result of participating in the program "Fighting Fair, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., for Kids", (2) Although administrators and teachers agreed that students' behavior had changed, there was a significant difference between their perceptions. Administrators were more in agreement that the students' behavior had changed than the teachers. (3) Problem solving was viewed as the most successful strategy in changing students behavior. (4) Smoothing and avoidance were perceived as the least successful strategies. (5) There was no significant difference between the administrators' perceptions and the teachers' perceptions of the most successful strategies in Fighting Fair in changing students' interpersonal and intragroup conflict behavior. (6) Both administrators and teachers agreed that smoothing and avoidance were the least successful strategies.

Conclusions. Some conclusions are: (1) The students' interpersonal and intragroup conflict behavior had changed. The intragroup conflict behavior had changed more than their interpersonal conflict behavior. (2) The peer mediation program "Fighting Fair, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., for Kids" had made a positive impact on the environment of middle schools that participated in this study. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/12, p. 4395, Jun 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Newspaper Article

Record Number: 213

Reporter: Banner, Randy

Year: 1999

Title: School Programs Help Reduce Violence, Study Says

Newspaper: New York Times

City: New York City, NY

Issue Date: September 15, 1999`

Abstract: Description of evaluation of Resolving Conflict Creatively Program by National Center for Children in Poverty, principal investigator - J. Lawrence Aber.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 5

Author: Barnes, Pat

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Comparison of Gender of Students Referred to Peer Mdiation Programs and Gender of Program Coordinators

Conference Name: National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution

Conference Location: Portland, OR

Pages: 3

Date: 1993

Notes: +Westchester Mediation Center of Cluster, 201 Palisade Ave, Box 281, Yonkers, NY 10703

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 6

Author: Barnes, Bruce

Year: 1998

Title: Research in Higher Education Conflict Management

Journal: The Fourth R, Conflict Resolution in Education Network (CRENET) Publication 82(March, April 1998): 9 ff.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 121

Author: BASTIANELLO, S.

Year: 1989

Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROGRAM FOR TEACHING CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES IN A PRIMARY CLASSROOM

City: Ft Lauderdale, FL.

University: Nova University

Type of Work: Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation

Notes: The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 122

Author: BAXLEY, ALBERT ANDREW, JR.

Year: 1982

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMS OF LIKERT AND WEHR

University: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG0537553

Keywords: EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF

Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine programs of conflict resolution in various disciplines in order to discover better ways of resolving conflict in education.

Procedure. Programs of conflict resolution in business, sociology, and education were analyzed for their commonalities and differences, as well as for their usability in education for resolving conflict.

Findings. Conflict resolution is an area of investigation that is growing rapidly, with new terms and insights being added continually. Opinions vary greatly; no general agreement has been reached on terminology or definitions; a definitive textbook is not yet in sight; and the field is labyrinthine. The most comprehensive, detailed, and consistent programs of conflict resolution are those of Rensis Likert and Paul Wehr. Likert's is the most thoroughly tested. Likert has incorporated his own research and that of other scientists in the program he calls "System 4." This program measures causal, intermediate, and end-result variables in the whole organization, especially in the areas of conflict. Extensive use of questionnaires insures two-way communication; gradualness of implementation helps secure the cooperation of organization members. Coordination in all directions is enhanced by the celebrated "linking pin." This program has already been successfully implemented in schools. The other program that seemed most appropriate for use in education was that of Paul Wehr. He provided a macroscopic view of conflict regulation to clarify the origin of conflict and ways of regulating conflict. The microscopic view Wehr provided contains a step-by-step procedure for mapping and regulating conflict. Skillful intervention is the focus of Wehr's program.

Conclusions. There is a general consensus that conflict can be expected at all times and places, that it can be dealt with successfully if the right procedures are used, and that it should not be avoided or suppressed. Conflict provides an organization with an opportunity for growth; a comprehensive and science-based program of conflict resolution increases the probability of success. Successful resolution of conflict requires accurate measuring, detailed planning, a consistent theory, and thorough training. The most promising programs for use in schools are those of Likert and Wehr. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 43-01A, Page 0104, 00001 PagesThe dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 322

Author: Beetham, Suzanne; McLennan, Charlene; Witucke, Cheryl

Year: 1998

Title: Improving Social Competencies through the Use of Conflict Resolution and Cooperative Learning

Institution: Saint Xavier University andIRI/SkylightField-Based Masters Program

Pages: 66

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED421271

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Change Strategies; Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Interpersonal Competence; Program Effectiveness; Social Development

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This action research project designed and implemented a program for the instruction of cooperative learning and conflict resolution strategies in order to increase social competencies. The targeted population consisted of two multi-age, grade 2/3 classrooms and one fifth grade classroom in a stable middle class community in a large midwestern suburb. The problem of lack of social competency (showing respect, taking responsibility, and making sound decisions) was documented by means of teacher surveys, anecdotal records, behavior checklists, teacher observation, and individual behavior plans. A review of problem data and olution strategies resulted in selection of two major interventions: direct instruction of cooperation through cooperative learning strategies, and implementation of conflict resolution principles. Post-intervention data indicated that the instruction of social skills along with conflict resolution strategies resulted in improved social competencies in most areas of social interaction. Students showed an increase in respectful, responsible, and cooperative behavior in and out of the classroom. (Fourteen appendices include sample teacher survey, anecdotal record, and brainstorming solutions worksheet. Contains 37 references.) (HTH)

COMMENTS: Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University andIRI/SkylightField-Based Masters Program

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 323

Author: Bell, Mary; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: Improving Primary Level Interpersonal Skills through Conflict Resolution, Cooperative Learning and Children's Literature

Institution: Saint Xavier University and IRI/Skylight

Pages: 100

Type: Master's Action Research Project

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED410059

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Behavior Change; Childrens Literature; Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Elementary School Students; Interpersonal Competence; Interpersonal Relationship; Intervention; Primary Education; Problem Solving; Program Evaluation; Social Behavior; Social Development; Teacher Surveys

IDENTIFIERS: Teacher Journals

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This research project devised and evaluated a program for improving primary grade students' interpersonal skills to reduce their inappropriate behaviors when interacting with others. Teacher surveys, journals and observations of children's behavior were used to document poor interpersonal skills in kindergartners through third graders in four classrooms. The intervention consisted of direct instruction of interpersonal skills through 9 weeks of instruction in conflict resolution and communication skills with ongoing reinforcement, cooperative learning techniques, and the use of children's literature emphasizing interpersonal skills. Evaluation results indicated that some activities and expectations needed modifications for the kindergarten level. Post-intervention data collected from behavioral checklists revealed that there was a decrease in the number of incidents of inappropriate behavior, such as verbally abusing others, interrupting speakers, or being off-task while someone was speaking. There was a marked decrease in inappropriate behavior outside the classroom with a large drop in the number of students involved in inappropriate behavior. Teachers noted significant growth in verbal communication of feelings, the use of open-ended problem solving, and increased awareness of conflict resolution, although the degree to which conflict resolution strategies were used depended on the child's age. (Seventeen appendices include the behavior checklist, teacher survey, children's conflict resolution literature, and sample lesson plans and classroom materials. Contains 24 references.) (KB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 123

Author: BELLACE, ROSEMARIE

Year: 1997

Title: THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING ON FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER SATISFACTION AND SCHOOL CLIMATE DURING THE INITIATION OF A MEDIATION PROGRAM IN A GRADE 3-5 INTERMEDIARY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (THIRD-GRADE, FOURTH-GRADE, FIFTH-GRADE, STUDENT BEHAVIOR)

University: WIDENER UNIVERSITY

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9724484

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING; PSYCHOLOGY, INDUSTRIAL

Abstract: Numerous critical reports have delineated the problems facing America's educational system. Through the seventies and eighties, the goal of improved educational outcomes has been commonly demanded. Many educators spend substantial time managing classroom conflicts (Amsler & Sadella, 1987). Therefore, the call for improved educational services also includes proactive approaches to intervention used by schools in respect to student behavior. Educators have responded in many ways to meet these behavioral challenges and changes regarding intervention. A study of school climate has been useful in analyzing human behavior in school settings. However, a preliminary review of the literature shows that climate studies frequently neglect the topic of school violence. One method of intervention with school violence is known as conflict resolution. This method has been used to help meet the need to improve both student behavior and school climate.

This study focused on the impact of conflict resolution training on faculty perceptions of teacher satisfaction and school climate during the initiation of a mediation program in a grade 3-5 intermediary elementary school in a New Castle County, Delaware school district. A School Climate Survey, an Organizational Health Inventory and a Teacher Satisfaction Survey were administered in the fall before staff and student training and at the close of school after implementing the program. The impact of conflict resolution training on school climate, organizational health and teacher satisfaction as measured by the National Association of Secondary School Principal's School Climate and Teacher Satisfaction Surveys was examined in this study. Quantitative measures were used for evaluation. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-03A, Page 0812, 00172 The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 124

Author: BENENSON, WAYNE ALAN

Year: 1988

Title: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A PEER BASED CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

University: UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO

Major Professor: MAYNARD YUTZY

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG8819263

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Conflict Manager program in elementary schools. The foundation of the program asserts that a collaborative, problem-solving approach to conflict, labeled constructive conflict, is the preferred mode in dealing with disagreements. It was assumed that given a specific curriculum of conflict awareness exercises and a formalized training of peer mediators, students could become aware of basic knowledge concerning constructive conflict. Further, they would use these skills during school conflicts. The study's population consisted of 8 elementary classrooms with a total of 210 students from grades four, five and six. The treatment group received: (1) a six hour teacher training session, (2) a six week, eighteen lesson curriculum concerning cooperation and communication skill building for the students and (3) a six hour mediation training for 24 peer-nominated student mediators. When trained, pairs of student mediators would mediate playground disputes.

A 24 item survey instrument was designed to test knowledge and application of constructive conflict behaviors. A pretest and a posttest were given to both control and experimental groups; the treatment phase lasted three months. A before and after record of conflict incidents reported to the principal was also used to assess behavior change.

The study found a significant difference (F (2,181) = 22.8, P <.01) in the knowledge of constructive approaches to conflict management favoring students who were exposed to the classroom conflict curriculum. Students trained as Conflict Managers achieved significantly better scores in conflict knowledge and perception of effectiveness in managing conflict (F (1,180) = 18.24, P <.01) than either classroom trained or control groups. No significant behavioral difference in constructive conflict could be determined. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 49-07A, Page 1700, 00074 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 214

Author: Benken, Don

Year: 1997

Title: Reducing Violence in Schools Using Peer Mediation: Panacea or Pointless?

City: Atlanta

Institution: Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution

Pages: 27

Date: September 1997

Report Number: Working Paper Series #97-1

Abstract: Part I examines the problem of violence in schools. Part II considers the epidemiological data that justifies planning and implementing a CR/PM program in the school setting. Part III examines the literature describing the effectiveness of CR/PM programs in the schools setting. Part IV critically examines the findings from CR/PM peer reviewed research studies to identify specific strategies for implementing programs and developing protocols for evaluating the effectiveness of CR/PM programs in the school setting. Part V summarizes the research and available commentary to help school administrators develop a needs assessment for CR/PM programs in their school, determine measurable criteria for evaluating the program, and select strategies for implementing a reputationally strong CR/PM program. From the author's Introduction p. 3-4. MB

Notes: To order, write or call Carolyne G. Benne, Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, Georgia State University, College of Law, P. O. Box 4037, Atlanta, Georgia 30302-4037. (404/651-1588) A nominal fee is charged.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 7

Author: Bergman, A.B.

Year: 1989

Title: Results of Conflict Resolution Goal at Maugham School

City: Tenafly, NJ

Institution: Tenafly Public Schools

Pages: 4

Date: June 1989

Type: Unpublished manuscript

Abstract: This Children's Creative Response to Conflict (CCRC) elementary school program included one-day of teacher inservice, classroom workshops for students, and a peer mediation program. The evaluation was based on pre- and post- tests of all third, fourth, and fifth grade students using the "How I respond to Conflicts" questionnaire which was administered in October and May. A trend toward more positive resonses to conflict occurred. Anecdotal interview with teachers and students indicated enthusiasm for the program. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 8

Author: Berlowitz, M.J. ; Kmitta, D.M.

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Pilot project research on conflict resolution training in an urban school setting

Conference Name: American Educational Studies Association Convention

Conference Location: Chicago, IL

Pages: 23 plus appendices

Date: November, 1993

Keywords: inservice workshops for teachers,conflict resolution education/training

Abstract: From the report abstract: This paper emphasizes a research method that can be reproduced to examine the effects of a school-based conflict resolution training program in an urban environment. The researchers investigated behavioral outcomes as measure by archival discipline referral and suspension data. A matched comparison treatment/control group utilizing a hierarchical nest design was use to address issues surrounding internal and external validity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated that there was not statistical relationship between discipline referrals and suspensions, thus making discipline referrals the superior outcome variable to measure program efficacy. The use multivariate trend analysis demonstrated that the conflict resolution training had no overall effect in reducing discipline referrals or suspensions. Descriptive statistics demonstrate that experienced and inexperienced conflict resolution trainers had divergent results in discipline referral outcomes. The more experience trainer had fewer discipline referrals originating from her classroom workshops than the inexperienced trainers. Alternative hypotheses regarding program ineffectiveness include the sociological consideration of structural violence and oppression. The research model promises to be useful in future conflict resolution research." Authors.

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 9

Author: Berlowitz, M.J. ; Kmitta, D. M.

Year: 1994

Title: Evaluation of the Center for Peace Education Programs for 1992 - 1993: final report.

City: Cincinnati, OH

Institution: Center for Peace Education

Pages: 100 plus appendices

Type: analysis, program evaluation report

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 324

Author: Bickmore, Kathy

Year: 1998

Title: Teacher Development for Conflict Resolution

Journal: Alberta Journal of Educational Research; 44(1): 53-69

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ564441

ISSN-0002-4805

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Case Studies; Change Strategies; Conflict Resolution; Discipline; Educational Change; Educational Environment; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; Elementary Schools; Faculty Development; Participative Decision Making; Resistance to Change; School Based Management; Teacher Attitudes; Urban Education

IDENTIFIERS: Comer School Development Program

Abstract: ABSTRACT: In an urban elementary school, teachers trained in the Comer school development approach attempted to reform school discipline practices and plan conflict resolution efforts for students. Time constraints and teachers' aversion to coping with conflicting views inhibited the open democratic discussion needed as a foundation of change and limited the effectiveness of teacher reform efforts. Contains 49 references. (SV)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 325

Author: Bickmore, Kathy

Year of Conference: 1998

Title: Integrated Elementary Curriculum about Conflict Resolution: Can Children Handle Global Politics?

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: San Diego, CA

Pages: 24

Date: April 13-17, 1998

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED421588

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Comprehension; Conflict Resolution; Diversity (Student); Elementary Education; Elementary School Curriculum; Elementary School Students; Elementary School Teachers; Foreign Countries; Global Approach; Integrated Activities; Interdisciplinary Approach; Politics; Program Implementation; Teaching Methods; World Affairs

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This paper explores the ways diverse elementary school students may be taught to understand and respond constructively to social and interpersonal conflict, by studying the implemented curriculum in one public elementary classroom. In this urban Canadian classroom, well over half of the 33 students were recent immigrants with diverse language and cultural backgrounds. Conflict education was integrated with other academic subject matter, especially language arts and social studies. The lessons were organized around key ideas for understanding conflict, based on conflict resolution theory, using familiar and unfamiliar examples of conflict at various stages, including wars and political disputes. A series of vignettes illustrates particular lessons and the student work the lessons inspired. The analysis focuses on the processes and subject matter through which students developed understandings about conflict and conflict resolution. The study substantiates the idea that young children are indeed able to handle complex political and international conflicts. In fact, their conceptual sophistication for handling interpersonal conflicts seems to be enhanced by their understanding of intergroup conflicts. (Contains 73 references.) (SLD)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 10

Author: Blakeway, M.

Year: 1992

Title: Conflict management and peer mediation as an approach to reducing drug and alcohol use and abuse in the schools. An overview of CCRC: Capital Area participation.

City: Arlington, VA.

Institution: CCRC: Capital Area

Date: April, 1992

Type: project description

Keywords: alcohol/drug abuse, comprehensive, conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools - 4, peer mediation, suburban schools, whole school

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 11

Author: Blakeway, Marsha S.; Kmitta, Daniel M.

Year: 1998

Title: Conflict Resolution in Education Research and Evaluation Synopsis and Bibliography - 1998

City: Washington, D.C.

Institution: National Institute for Dispute Resolution/ Conflict Resolution Education Network

Type: research review, bibliography, annotations

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 12

Author: Blakeway, Marsha

Year: 1998

Title: Report of Survey of Conflict Resolution Programming in District of Columbia Public Schools

City: Washington, DC

Institution: National Peace Foundation

Pages: 25

Date: April, 1998

Type: survey report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Abstract: Key findings: About 20 volunteer or professional service-provider organizations provide conflict resolution, peer mediation, or related programming in D.C. schools. Service provider organizations fit loosely into several different categories: lawyer sponsored programs; peacemaking, conflict resolution and nonviolence programs; university-sponsored programs; literacy-based program; peer diversity program (ADL); violence prevention programs. Community interest and extensive efforts among community-based organizations exist to provide conflict resolution training, peer mediation training or program support, and other violence prevention programming to the school system. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 13

Author: Blechman, Frank

Year: 1996

Title: Evaluating Conflict Resolution Programs in Schools

City: Fairfax,VA

Institution: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University

Pages: 4

Date: November 1996

Type: evaluation designs/strategies

Abstract: This paper outlines broad categories and framing questions to assist in program design and evaluation of school-based conflict resolution or peer mediation programs. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 14

Author: Bodine, Richard J.; Crawford, Donna K.

Year: 1998

Title: The Handbook of Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Building Quality Programs in Schools

City: San Francisco

Publisher: National Institute for Dispute Resolution, Jossey-Bass Publishers

Number of Pages: 218

ISBN: 0-7879-1096

Abstract: This book contains an eleven page chapter "Research Findings on What Works" that include a review of research by Johnson and Johnson. Program evaluations are also summarized: Ohio; Clark County, Nevada, RCCP, Project S.M.A.R.T. in New York, and others.

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 125

Author: BONNER, JAMES HOLIDAY

Year: 1997

Title: VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION EDUCATION IN UNITED STATES PUBLIC SCHOOLS: A FIFTY STATE SURVEY (CHARACTER EDUCATION, MORAL DEVELOPMENT)

University: UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE

ADVISER: Director: STEPHEN K. MILLER

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9831570

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; institutionalization

Abstract: Due to an alarming increase in the incidence of violence both within schools and in society in general, a government commitment to providing for safe schools has resulted. At the federal level, Title IV--the "Safe and Drug-free Schools and Communities Act of 1994" has afforded funding for all states meeting minimum compliance standards. As of January 1, 1996 all states and the District of Columbia were in compliance.

The purpose of this research is to survey the fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the extent to which each has made a commitment to VP/CR education and to attempt to draw some conclusions regarding what, if any, demographic and/or political factors might influence their respective and collective commitment. Of the fifty-one departments of education surveyed, forty-six participated in the survey.

The results are that all states are engaged at least at the minimum compliance standards of the federal Title IV requirements, and many are building progressive programs of excellence. A desire for progressive VP/CR education has been reported by many of the respondents to this research. All of the respondents recognized the magnitude of the school violence problem and the importance of addressing it. A lack of sufficient funding is the most frequently expressed frustration of those agencies who desire to be doing more than they are at present, which was a preponderance of those participating in the study.

Recommendations from both the research and policy perspectives include: evaluate existing programs to determine value added; understand the nature of violence in the broader community and to find ways to address the problem; fund programs sufficiently to meet real and demonstrated needs; build a more effective process of VP/CR education information sharing. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-04A, Page 1016, 00275 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Patent

Record Number: 215

Author: Borah, Kimberly

Year: 1992

Title: The Effectiveness of School-Based Mediation Programs

Pages: 29

Date: Fall 1992

Keywords: administrators, conflict resolution education/training, mediation, peer mediation, school-based, violence prevention

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 326

Author: Brawarsky, Sandee

Year: 1997

Title: Carnegie Corporation's Youth Intergroup Relations Initiative

City: New York, NY

Institution: Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

Pages: 39

Date: October 15-17, 1997

Type: Report of a Meeting Convened by Carnegie Corporation of New York

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED426165

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education; Equal Education; Grants; Intergroup Education; Intergroup Relations; Multicultural Education; School Role; Social Change; Teacher Education; Teacher Role; Track System (Education)

IDENTIFIERS: Carnegie Corporation of New York

Abstract: ABSTRACT: The Carnegie Corporation's initiative, established in 1996 to create a "new generation of tolerance," included grants to 16 institutions for cutting-edge research in various social science disciplines. Some themes are presented from the second meeting of project leaders for these research efforts. Most of the themes relate to the roles of schools and teachers. Changes in U.S. society mean that schools, communities, and even families are more diverse than they were decades ago. In spite of the new diversity, there remains a sort of "conspiracy of silence" surrounding issues of race. A national dialog about race is as necessary in the schools as in the larger society, since schools have enormous potential as the locus for improving intergroup relations. Current research supports the value of multicultural and antiracist teaching and the importance of cooperative activities in building positive race relations. Because schools play an important role in communicating values, the practice of tracking must be examined in light of the effects on student self-esteem and the limited opportunities for intergroup interaction that research suggests it provides. Teachers generally have little experience in fostering positive intergroup relations, and for this reason, they need skills in conflict management and sensitivity training. Like teachers, parents have great potential to influence their children in learning tolerance, and efforts to support parents in this task must be encouraged. Other themes discussed were the importance of media as an agent for social change, some international approaches to the study of intergroup relations, the possibility of integrative work between researchers in intergroup relations and those in conflict resolution, and the need for establishing a stable, well-funded research base. In discussing improving intergroup relations, war metaphors were frequently used, which is appropriate because the meeting participants agreed that the country must fight against inequities that block full participation in American life. The conference agenda and a list of participants are attached. (SLD)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 15

Author: Brener, Nancy D.; Krug, Etienne G.; Dahlberg, Linda L; Powell, Kenneth E.

Year: 1997

Title: Nurses' Logs as an Evaluation Tool for School-Based Violence Prevention Programs

Journal: Journal of School Health 67(No. 5): 171-174

Abstract: This article describes a data collection method used in the PeaceBuilders violence prevention program in Tuscon, AZ This program does not appear to include a problem-solving component. Children learn five simple principles: praise people, avoid put-downs, seek wise people as advisors and friends, notice and correct hurts, and right wrongs. This article is included in this list as being of interest to researchers and evaluators. The authors conclude that nurse's logs should be used in conjunction with other methods. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 16

Author: Brion-Meisels, Steven; Selman, Robert L.

Year: 1992

Title: Fight, Flight or Collaboration: Individual and Institutional Development in the School Draft

City: Cambridge, MA

Pages: 32

Date: March, 1992

Type: draft, research analysis,

Abstract: The authors use a developmental approach to understand both interpersonal and institutional negotiation strategies in the school context.

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 126

Author: BROWN, ENORA ROSALYN

Year: 1990

Title: THE TRANSACTIONAL NATURE OF CHILDREN'S COOPERATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARYING RESOURCE CONDITIONS

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG0569607

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD

Abstract: Conflict is a natural, healthy part of a child's cognitive and emotional life, can facilitate children's developing social competence. Cooperation and conflict are typically studied as mutually exclusive behaviors across diverse settings. Wilensky's theory (1983) guides this study's examination of children's goal-states and action-plans during the conflict resolution process under varying resource conditions. Experimental game-research (Nelson & Madsen, 1969) reveals demographic differences. Observational research documents children's interactional competence (Eckerman & Stein, 1982; Goldman & Ross, 1978) and prototypic features of conflicts (Shantz, 1987). Sociolinguists identify their verbal conflict resolution strategies (Garvey, 1981). Few have conducted controlled naturalistic observations. Theorists (Deutsch, 1949; May and Doob, 1937; Wilensky, (1983) present the complexity of cooperation and competition, and posit resource availability as a critical precondition. This study was designed to examine the effect of abundant/scarce resources on children's cooperative/competitive goal structures; to identify the goal-plans and strategies that emerge during conflict; and to illustrate the dynamic effect of competing goal-plans on conflict management.

Forty-eight, same-sex, same-age familiar dyads, aged 3.2 to 5.2, were videotaped in a limited (one brush and paper) and plentiful (two brushes and papers) resource painting activity. Children's verbalizations and gestures in two conflictual (Resource Directed and Exchange) and non-conflictual categories (Social and Paint Task) were coded. Dyads were observed in one of four counter-balanced conditions: Limited-Limited, Limited-Plentiful, Plentiful-Limited, or Plentiful-Plentiful.

The Limited Condition produced more (p <$.05) conflictual and the Plentiful Condition, more non-conflictual behavior. Immediate and Delayed Goal Reinstatement Cycles emerged; the latter producing more brush Exchanges, through Offers and Direct Attempts after Goal Abandonment. Grasps were more successful than Requests, produced cooperative and competitive outcomes; Requests and Alternate Behaviors generated Offers and deescalated conflict. Indirect Attempts kept the Non-Possessor involved, and deterred Subsequent Attempts. Right-of-possession rules and the Possessor's power influenced the interaction.

Results suggest that conflict management is an unfolding cooperative/competitive process, mediated by resources and children's interacting goal-plans. The effects of dominance, partners, and Goal Abandonment on conflict resolution may guide future work. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 51-10A, Page 3324, 00001 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 127

Author: BROWN, RICHARD BRADLEY

Year: 1992

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A STRATEGY FOR REDUCING PHYSICAL CONFRONTATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Academic Dept.: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Adviser: RONALD V. URICK

Number of Pages: 90

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D

Accession Number: AAG9225871

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: A study was conducted in 1991 to determine if there was a difference in the attitudes of two groups of pupils and teachers toward the resolution of conflicts, especially physical confrontation. One of the groups of pupils and teachers, four schools--the treatment group (TG), had been exposed to a conflict resolution program based on mediation as a partial solution. The other group of four schools the control group (CG), had not participated in a conflict resolution program. Other studies throughout the United States have indicated a high rate of success of mediation and conflict resolution programs.

Hypothesis 1, which states that there are significant differences in the responses of the two groups of pupils, with those in the treatment group (TG) favoring more peaceful solutions to conflict situations, was strongly supported by elementary pupils, weakly supported by middle school pupils, and not supported by high school pupils. Additional support for hypothesis 1 was noted in the response to fill-in questions which recorded pupils' methods of dealing with conflict. Using "conflict resolution techniques" is the most popular method of handling conflicts among elementary TG pupils and was high on other pupils' lists.

Hypothesis 2, which states that teachers/administrators (T/A) in the TG schools had opinions that their schools had a more peaceful atmosphere, was highly supported by elementary T/A's. It was mildly supported by middle and high school T/A's. One of the key questions posed was "Do the data indicate that the amount of fighting is less in schools where there has been some CR training?" Data indicate that the treatment group had much lower percentages of fight related discipline problems. Causes for fighting as indicated by T/A's pointed to the number one cause as being "lack of CR skills" which is further support for a strong CR program in schools. The number two cause was "rumor spreading/name calling/talking too much." Question number 18 on the T/A survey asked for the causes of increased violence in the city and schools. The top two causes were (1) poor parenting skills and (2) poor morals, ethics, values.

The National Association for Mediation in Education (NAME) is a strong organization that publishes, sponsors, trains and conducts workshops and seminars. They may be consulted whenever information on school-based mediation and conflict resolution is needed (NAME, 425 Amity Street, Amherst MA 01002). Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 53-04A, Page 0995, 00090 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 216

Author: Brown, Robert S., and others

Year: 1994

Title: An Evaluation of Conflict Resolution Programs at the Secondary Level at the Toronto Board of Education 1993-1994: The Evolution of a Model

City: Toronto

Institution: Toronto Board of Education

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 217

Author: Burrell, Nancy A; Sally M. Vogl

Year: 1990

Title: Turf-Side Conflict Mediation for Students

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 7(3): 237-249

Keywords: administrators, conflict resolution, conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation, school-based, students, system-wide, teachers

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 17

Author: Caliber Associates

Year: 1998

Title: Save Our Streets Outcome Evaluation Report

City: Fairfax, VA

Institution: National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR), Street Law

Pages: 14 + appendix

Date: February, 1998

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, law-related education

Abstract: The Save Our Streets (SOS) Program is a 14 week course for youths age 13-17 who have been taken into custody for gun possession, but have not yet committed a violent offense. The program was developed jointly by Street Law, Inc. and the National Institute for Dispute Resolution with support from Metropolitan Life. The law related education (LRE) component was designed to build conceptual and practical understanding of the law and legal processes. The conflict resolution training builds skills in the following areas: communication, impulse control, problem solving, and anger management.

Evaluation Methodology: Data was collected using survey instruments developed for the SOS program: Knowledge Assessment Survey; Skills Assessment Survey; Attitudinal and Behavioral Assessment Survey.

Findings: Program participants' knowledge regarding the court and legislative systems, police roles, gun possession, and conflict resolution improved substantially during program participation. Participants, on average, showed significant improvement in all five conflict resolution areas; most improvement was shown in ability to generate and evaluate options and prepare for negotiation. Regarding attitudes and behaviors towards the court system, gun possession, and violent behaviors, in general, participants tended to report a slight increase in their negative behaviors; this could be a function of increased willingness to self-report. However, a substantial proportion of participants showed improvement in: frequency of delinquent behavior, acceptance of rule breaking rationalizations, and attitudes toward the court. Court records were examined to determine the short-term impact on participants' return to court: a significantly smaller proportion of graduates was rearrested for delinquent offenses and weapons-related charges than youth who never entered the program or attended fewer than 3 classes. MB

Notes: +Contact: SOS Program Director, Street Law, Inc. 202-293-0088

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 218

Author: Cardella, Lucille A.; Slyck, Michael Van

Year of Conference: 1999

Title: Peace Education and Conflict Resolution Curricula for Middle School Students

Conference Name: American Psychological Association

Conference Location: Boston, MA

Pages: 23

Date: August 22, 1999

Abstract: This is a critical review of six peace education and conflict resolution curricula for middle school level which was done by the Working Group of Division 48 of the American "Psychological Association". It is a follow-up of the review of high school curricula reviewed by the same group - included here as Nelson, Van Slyck and Cardella (1999) - two citations.

The reviewers used "a set of educational objectives to be met by these curricula including knowledge and understanding, competencies, attitudes and values, and efficacy and outcome expectancies with regard to the principles and practice of social conflict and dispute resolution. In addition, such factors as grade appropriateness, interest, and difficulty were rated. " (Abstract)

Curricula reviewed are as follows:

Conflict Resolution in the Middle School, Kriedler, 1997

Creating Peace, Building Community, Bachay, 1997

Creating the Peaceable School, Bodine, Crawford, & Schrumpf, 1994

Making the Peace, Kivel & Creighton, 1997

Productive Conflict Resolution, Colorado School, Mediation Project, 1997

Viewpoints: A Guide to Conflict Resolution and Decision-Making for Adolescents, Guerra, Moore, & Slaby, 1995 MB

Notes: Michael Van Slyck, Research Institute for Dispute Resolution, P. O. Box 14044, Albany, NY 12212.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 219

Author: Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Diane E. Levin

Year: 1991

Title: Making Peace in Violent Times: A Constructivist Approach to Conflict Resolution

Pages: 9

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, social and emotional learning, violence prevention

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 18

Author: Carpenter, John N.; Parco, Maureen A.

Year: 1993

Title: Clark County Social Service School Mediation Program Evaluation Report 1993

City: Las Vegas, NV

Institution: Clark County Social Service Neighborhood Justice Center

Pages: 16

Date: September 1993

Type: evaluation report

Keywords: peer mediationt

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 19

Author: Carpenter, John N.; Kotchka, Karen L.; Parco, Maureen A.

Year: 1994

Title: Clark County Social Service School Mediation Program Evaluation Report

City: Las Vegas, NV

Institution: Clark County Social Service Neighborhood Justice Center

Pages: 11

Date: November 1994

Type: evaluation report

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 20

Author: Carpenter, John N.; Parco, Maureen A.

Year: 1995

Title: Clark County Social Service School Mediation Program Evaluation Report

City: Nevada

Institution: Clark County Social Service Neighborhood Justice Center

Pages: 15

Date: September 1995

Type: evaluation report

Keywords: peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 327

Author: Carruthers, William L.; And Others

Year: 1996

Title: Conflict Resolution: An Examination of the Research Literature and a Model for Program Evaluation

Journal: School Counselor 44(1): 5-18

Call Number: ISSN: 0036-6536

ERIC Identifier: EJ538835

Keywords: Descriptors: Antisocial Behavior; Arbitration; Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Educational Environment; Peace; Problem

Solving; Program Evaluation; Secondary Education; Social Cognition; Social Problems

Identifiers: Peer Mediation

Abstract: Summarizes some of the common findings in the professional literature pertaining to conflict resolution (CR) curricula

and peer mediation (PM) programs. Discusses theoretical, methodological and operational considerations that are relevant to

conducting research and evaluation in school settings. Proposes a model to guide educators' decisions on how to conduct an

evaluation of CR and PM programs. (KW)

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/EJ538835.htm

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 21

Author: Carter, Susan

Year: 1990

Title: Evaluation Report on New Mexico Mediation in the Schools: 1989-90

City: Albuquerque, New Mexico

Institution: University of New Mexico

Type: evaluation report

Pages: 20

Keywords: mediation, statewide

Abstract: This paper reports on the statewide educational Mediation in the Schools Program (MISP) of New Mexico in which students and teachers are trained as mediators to help resolve school-based disputes. Using eight schools in four school districts, an evaluation was conducted of MISP in the years 1989-1990. The bulk of the data for this evaluation was derived from two pre- and post-test survey instruments. The first was the COST (Conflict Opinion Scale for Teachers) and the second SAAC (Student Attitudes About Conflict). Information was also obtained from interviews with students, teachers, administrators, and parents following the program. The results of these methods of evaluation were analyzed by a professional outside evaluator.

Conclusions: The COST and SAAC surveys revealed no statistical evidence of any difference between pre- and post-tests, and the evaluator poses several possible causes of this outcome. The interviews, however, produced evidence, too complex and extensive to mention here, regarding the following:

1) Changes in students' approaches to and attitudes toward conflict; 2) Changes in teachers' approaches to and attitudes toward conflict; 3) Changes in mediators' self-concept; 4) The degree and nature of conflict within the school before and after implementation of the program; 5) Attitudes of parents, school boards, and other in the community regarding MISP; 6) The transfer of school conflict management to home conflict management; 7) Student mediators' attitudes about school before and after the program; and 8) The strong and weak points of the program as viewed by students, teachers, administrators, and parents. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 22

Author: Carter, Susan Lee

Year: 1995

Title: Evaluation Report for the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution: Mediation in the Schools Program 1993-94 School Year.

City: Albuquerque, NM

Institution: National Resource Center for Youth Mediation

Type: evaluation report; spiral bound

Keywords: peer mediation, statewide

Abstract: Four program-designed instruments for obtaining information regarding various aspects of the Mediation in the Schools Program from administrators, teachers and students were used to produce this in-depth report. A Mediation in the Schools Statistics Sheet, based on surveys completed by 104 schools currently using the program, provided basic demographic and descriptive statistical information. An evaluation of the program, based on surveys from 116 schools, identified the level of implementation and program impact as perceived by school administrators and program coordinators. A survey completed by 232 teachers provided a comparison of the level of use and impact of the program between "program" and "non-program" schools. Finally, a multiple choice survey completed by over 1300 students illustrated the different levels of competency in conflict resolution skills by non-program and program students as well as trained and untrained students.

Recommendations: Based on the information derived from these instruments, the consultant hired by the MIS Program to evaluate the results recommended that the MIS Program: 1) Increase training opportunities for program and non-program schools; 2) Expand the use of the curriculum to include more of the student body; 3) Keep students actively engaged by offering the opportunity to more students and providing consistent practice for those already involved; 4) Involve parents more to encourage the use of conflict resolution skills outside the classroom in homes and neighborhoods; and 5) Provide more adequate resources for implementation of the program. MS

Notes: +National Resource Center for Youth Mediation, 800 Park Avenue SW, Albuquerque, NM 87102; 1-800-249-6884, 505-247-0572

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 128

Author: CARTER, CANDICE CHERIE

Year: 1998

Title: CONFLICT MEDIATION AT SCHOOL: THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS INTERVENTION, NONVIOLENCE)

University: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE

Adviser: ORTIZ, FLORA IDA

Number of Pages: 97

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9909574

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, BILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL (0282); PSYCHOLOGY, COGNITIVE (0633); EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF (0340); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND OUNSELING (0519)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between students' characteristics and formal-conflict resolution. Conflict resolution style (CRS) and satisfaction with the mediation intervention were the criterion variables. This study employed a multi-method procedure to identify factors that influenced students' experiences in conflict mediation (CM) at school. Analysis of quantitative data collected from school records and the participants' self-reports about their characteristics as well as their conflict behaviors provided one method of investigation. The other method consisted of analysis of observational data that the researcher collected to confirm the quantitative data and to add information that instruments did not measure. The subjects were all the middle school students at two schools in one district of Southern California who participated in conflict mediation during one school year. About half of the subjects were Caucasians and 30 percent were Latinos including English Language Development students.

Methods: Published and developed measures were used for instrumentation including the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (1997) and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (1996). In a path analysis, the characteristics that directly associated with CRS were ethnicity, gender, and self-pride. English fluency had a strong indirect influence on CRS and a direct influence on access to participation in CM. In an exploratory factor analysis, one factor was retained that represented the smoothing mode of conflict communication. The nominal and interval levels of the data allowed for chi-square procedures in tests of associations.

Results: Students with higher levels of happiness and pride were more satisfied with CM. Students' satisfaction levels with conflict mediation associated with cultural identity; ethnic minorities as a whole had lower satisfaction than Caucasians. The non-violent resolutions that CM participants made were often avoidance, 'Stay away from each other.' The CM process needs to help students attain a productive resolution; one that is just for both disputants and will improve their relations. Conflict-mediation programs should include more collaboration between school staff and families, especially when students' conflicts have the potential for reoccurrence. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/10, p. 3718, Apr 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 223

Author: Catalano, R.; Hawkins, J. D.

Year: 1995

Title: Communities That Care: Risk-Focused Prevention Using the Social Development Strategy

City: Seattle, WA

Publisher: Developmental Research and Programs, Inc.

Notes: Reference from D. Crawford

 

Reference Type: Newspaper Article

Record Number: 224

Reporter: Celis, W.

Year: 1993

Title: Suburban and rural schools learning that violence isnít confined to the cities.

Newspaper: New York Times

City: New York, NY

Pages: p. B11

Issue Date: April 21, 1993

Notes: Reference from Heinecken and Gromko

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 225

Author: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Year: 1993

Title: The Prevention of Youth Violence

City: Atlanta, GA

Institution: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services - Public Health Services,

Pages: 96

Abstract: This manual is designed to help concerned individuals and community-based organizations to reduce violence and prevent injuries and deaths from violence among youths in their community. Two main sections: Activities to Prevent Youth Violence and Program Management. Includes list of 20 conflict resolution programs in Appendix. MB

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 328

Author: Charney, Ruth Sidney

Year: 1997

Title: Habits of Goodness. Case Studies in the Social Curriculum: With Case Studies by Six Elementary School Teachers.

City: Massachusetts

Number of Pages: 177

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED415157

ISBN-0-9618636-5-X

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Caregivers; Case Studies; Citizenship; Citizenship Responsibility; Conflict Resolution; Democracy; Educational Philosophy; Elementary Education; Helping Relationship; Qualitative Research

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Expanding on Ruth Sidney Charney's ideas in "Teaching Children to Care," this book addresses the question of adding a caring dimension to classroom practice. The book draws on case studies from six elementary classroom teachers as they incorporate some aspect of a caring curriculum to their students. The book is divided into three parts with the case studies portion authored by practicing teachers. Part 1, "The Case Study Process and the Social Curriculum," includes: (1) "Dignifying the Struggle: Teachers as Problem Solvers"; and (2) "Social Curriculum: Shared Assumptions." Part 2, "The Case Studies," contains: (1) "Ritual and Real: Developing Language in a Kindergarten Classroom" (Eileen Mariani); (2) "Getting Underneath: Caring and Sharing Among Fives and Sixes" (Arona McNeill-Vann); (3) "Letting the Spill Grow: Conflict Resolution in a First Grade" (Linda Mathews); (4) "Outer Structures/Inner Supports: Teaching Respect to Fourth and Fifth Graders" (Cathy Jacques); (5) "How Are You Going to Unbore Yourself? Active Learning in the Fifth Grade" (Colette Kaplan); and (6) "Moving the Teacher's Desk: Democracy in a Fifth/Sixth Grade" (Dorothy McCaffrey). Part 3, "Common Insights and Problems," offers: (1) "Common Insights"; (2) "Common Problems"; and (3) "Reflective Practice: A Conclusion of Sorts." An appendix contains a case study outline for teacher use, notes, and 27 references. (EH)

Notes: ERIC; Northeast Foundation for Children, 71 Montague City Road, Greenfield, MA 01301; phone: 413-772-2066; toll-free: 800-360-6332

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 129

Author: CHEN, DORA WU

Year: 1998

Title: TEACHER INTERVENTIONS IN THE PEER CONFLICTS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: THE EFFECTS OF CHILDREN'S AGE AND CONFLICT BEHAVIORS (CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT)

University: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK

Adviser: FEIN, GRETA G.

Number of Pages: 174

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9908928

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD (0518); EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

Abstract: The frequency, latency and strategies of teacher intervention in the peer conflicts of 2, 3, and 4 year-olds were examined in relation to the age of children and their conflict behaviors in the naturalistic classroom setting during freeplay time. 400 children from 25 classrooms (eight 2 year-old, nine 3 year-old, and eight 4 year-old classrooms) were videotaped for up to two 5-minute time blocks. Only the first peer conflict event generated by each target child observation was included in the analysis. Of the 400 children observed, 322 generated a conflict event. Teachers intervened in 31.4% of these events.

Results: While the issues, insistence and resolution of conflict significantly changed with children's age, the incidence and escalation of conflict, as well as child solicitation of teacher assistance did not. Although significant age effects were found for the frequency and latency of intervention, teacher intervention strategies were not affected by the children's age or specific child conflict behaviors. Mediation strategies were infrequently used, especially with 4 year-olds. Additional analyses revealed that teachers' level of education and the NAEYC accreditation status of the centers are significant predictors of teacher strategy. Problems for future investigation are described. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/10, p. 3730, Apr 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 329

Author: Cochrane, Lorna J.; Saroyan, Alenoush

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Finding Evidence To Support Violence Prevention Programs

Conference Name: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Chicago, IL

Pages: 23

Date: March 24-28, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED409359

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Comparative Analysis; Conflict Resolution; Educational Environment; Elementary School Students; English; Evaluation Methods; Foreign Countries; French; Grade 5; Intermediate Grades; Interviews; Pretests Posttests; Prevention; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires; Self Concept; Skill Development; Social Cognition; Urban Schools; Violence

IDENTIFIERS: Canada; Francophone Education (Canada)

Abstract: ABSTRACT: The effects of a conflict resolution program on school climate, student self-image, and the use of conflict resolution skills were studied in urban schools in Canada. Benefits and limitations of conflict resolution in comparison with other types of violence prevention programs and methods of evaluating violence prevention programs were also studied. The context was grade-5 classrooms of 3 French and 4 English elementary schools in 2 urban areas of a large Canadian city, for a total of 140 students and their teachers. The evaluation design was based on the Key Features Model of J. S. Renzulli (1975) using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. Data sources included student and teacher questionnaires and structured interviews with students and teachers. The conflict resolution program, which featured accepting and respecting difference and skills for self-control and communication, was delivered over 10 weeks. Observations supported the positive effects of the program on school climate. Students reported increased self-confidence and an increase in the use of skills specific to conflict resolution. Teachers reported a decrease in interference with teaching, but the value perceived by teachers for the program did not change with the intervention. Implications for future evaluations of violence prevention programs are discussed. (Contains 5 tables and 39 references.)(SLD)

Notes: ERIC

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 130

Author: COHEN, CYNTHIA EAMES

Year: 1997

Title: A POETICS OF RECONCILIATION: THE AESTHETIC MEDIATION OF CONFLICT

University: UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

Director: BARBARA HOUSTON

Number of Pages: 388

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9819673

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF; EDUCATION, INTERCULTURAL; FOLKLORE

Abstract: This dissertation, a philosophical inquiry into the significance of the aesthetic domain for reconciliation, addresses the following question: What is the nature of reconciliation, and what is the nature of the aesthetic domain, that aesthetic forms and processes should be uniquely well-suited to the educational tasks and challenges inherent in the work of reconciliation? The question is answered through the methods of conceptual analysis, with examples from the author's practice of conflict resolution, oral history and cultural work.

Results: The first section of the dissertation identifies 'reconciliation' as an ethical and educational concept. The educational tasks of reconciliation--through which former enemies must come to understand their own and each others' suffering, acknowledge injustices, and become trusting and trustworthy--are made difficult by challenges created by violent conflict. The challenges result from the ethical and epistemic interembeddedness of individuals and their groups; the ethical and epistemic interrelatedness of enemies; and the extent to which violence itself impairs necessary capacities. The second section proposes an original conception of the aesthetic domain, based on Western philosophical theories and their feminist and Africanist critics, analysis of expressive patterns of pre-literate collectivities, and two Eastern theories. The definition builds on categories that emerge from Western philosophy--the integration of the sensuous and the rational; apprehension of formal qualities; and non-utilitarian response--and corrects for cultural bias. The aesthetic domain is defined by the pleasurable reciprocity between the organization of elements in a formal structure and the perceptual capacities and sensibilities of perceivers. The third section of the dissertation demonstrates that aesthetic forms and processes are uniquely well-suited to accomplish the educational tasks and meet the educational challenges inherent in reconciliation. Both reconciliation and aesthetic transactions involve transformations that also respect the integrity of all parties. Aesthetic forms and processes cultivate the precise sensibilities--receptivity, respect, empathy, creativity, vitality, and metacognitive self-awareness--that are required for reconciliation. Finally, rituals and other collective expressive forms offer non-violent but viscerally compelling means through which human communities might substantiate large-scale framing assumptions, including new relationships imagined and created through efforts at reconciliation. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-12A, Page 4594, 00388 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 131

Author: CORDASCO, BARBARA ANN

Year: 1996

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION THROUGH PEER MEDIATION: AN ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN EFFECTIVENESS OF APPLICATION/INTERVIEW AND/OR SOCIOMETRICALLY SELECTED MEDIATORS (LEADERSHIP)

University: SETON HALL UNIVERSITY

Mentor: MEL SHAY

Number of Pages: 213

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9708037

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION

Abstract: This study attempted to determine if the method by which a mediator is selected has any bearing on his/her effectiveness as a mediator. The methods of selection that were researched and compared were the application and interview method and the sociometric method. The specific indicators of effectiveness measured were the mediator's communication, conflict resolution and leadership skills as they were demonstrated during actual mediations. Three sources, the mediators themselves, the disputant, (individuals who underwent a mediation), and the advisory committee, (staff members trained in mediation skills) evaluated effectiveness. Three different instruments, two developed by Dr. Julie Lam for NAME and adapted for the study, and one developed by the researcher were used to measure mediator effectiveness. All three instruments are included in the appendices. School discipline records were used to verify whether the mediators were effective.

Results: Although the results indicated that there was no significant difference in the overall effectiveness of the mediator regardless of the method of selection, there were some anomalies cited. One source reported a significant difference in two areas of effectiveness of the mediators who were sociometrically selected. According to the disputants, the sociometrically selected mediators were more effective in communication and leadership skills. The results may be helpful in assisting one who is about to implement a program in their school. A method of selection, the CRS system was developed. This method provides a vehicle for categorizing students into their own social groups. As a result of this grouping technique, a sample population that represents a true cross section of the larger population can be selected. The results suggest that the use of this method was the main reason why no significant difference was found in the mediators' effectiveness. It is strongly suggested that this method be utilized to insure the selection of students who represent their peers and develop into effective mediators. This method which is based on suggestion from experts in the field of selection for peer help groups is fully explained in the study. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-10A, Page 4272, 00213 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 330

Author: Cornell, Dewey G.

Year: 1998

Title: Designing Safer Schools for Virginia: A Guide to Keeping Students Safe from Violence. Building Blocks to Better Learning Series.

Institution: Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. School of Education.

Pages: 53

Date: 1998

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED426570

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Audits (Verification); Conflict Resolution; Crime Prevention; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Policy Formation; Prevention; School Safety; School Security; Violence

Abstract: ABSTRACT: In 1997, the Virginia General Assembly passed legislation requiring local school boards to conduct school safety audits for each school under their jurisdiction. Guidelines for helping educators conduct these audits are presented here. This guide is designed to help administrators chart an informed, responsible, and proactive course toward maintaining and promoting a safe environment in Virginia's schools. It opens with a brief overview of the nature and scope of violence in schools today, particularly the significant problem of juvenile violent crimes, and reviews 10 components of a school safety audit. The text offers detailed assessments of school safety needs, such as the development and enforcement of policies, procedures for data collection, and the role of law enforcement. It also lists standards for safety and security personnel. The last section provides some effective violence prevention strategies, including conflict resolution, early intervention programs, drug-education programs, and community-based programs. The conclusion notes that educators should incorporate violence prevention and school security as routine considerations in all aspects of educational design and maintains that school safety audits can contribute to the fulfillment of this responsibility. (Contains approximately 90 references and lists sample items for a school safety survey.) (RJM)

Notes: ERIC; Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, 405 Emmet St., Charlottesville, VA 22903-2495.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 24

Author: Crary, D. R.

Year: 1992

Title: Community benefits from mediation: a test of the "Peace Virus" hypothesis.

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 9(3): 241-252

Keywords: mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 25

Author: Crawford, Donna; Bodine, Richard

Year: 1996

Title: Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings

City: Washington, DC

Institution: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention - U.S. Department of Justice, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program - U.S. Department of Education

Pages: 88 plus Appendices

Date: October 1996

Type: programming guide

Report Number: NCJ 160935

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Notes: +Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, P. O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000; Phone: 800-638-8736; E-mail: askncjrs@ncjrs.org ; Website: http://www.ncjrs.org

URL: Text version: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/160935.txt;

PDF version: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/conflic.pdf

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 132

Author: D'ELIO, ANTHONY R.

Year: 1982

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTION STRATEGIES ON JUVENILE ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

University: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

Number of Pages: 244

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG8223594

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AND MENTAL HYGIENE

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find what were the distributions of responses of juvenile subjects classified according to the intervention strategies of individual conflict resolution, family mediation, peer-group conflict management, and a control group with respect to pretreatment and also posttreatment scores on those dependent variables identified by the literature as being highly correlated with juvenile crime, violence, and delinquency within the schools and communities. These variables were self-concept, reading, mathematics, truancy, dean referrals, and school suspensions. In addition, this study sought to determine and compare the means of juvenile subjects in the experimental and control groups with respect to the dependent variables. Moreover, this investigation sought to determine whether any significant interrelationships existed among the responses of subjects for each of the intervention strategy groups and a control group with respect to the dependent variables. The subjects of this study comprised 480 junior high school students, of whom 120 were in each of the intervention strategy groups and the control group. The instruments employed in this study were the Juvenile Data Collection Form, used for recording the data obtained on the dependent variables; an Intake-Termination Form, utilized to screen the subjects; the Piers and Harris Children's Self Concept Scale, used for measuring self-concept; and the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, employed for measuring academic achievement in reading and mathematics.

Results: The following major conclusions appeared warranted on the basis of the responses in this investigation: (1) It was concluded that the peer-group conflict management and the individual conflict resolution experimental groups were significant approaches in improving self-concept. (2) It was concluded that subjects in the family mediation experimental group achieved better in reading and mathematics than those in the peer-group conflict management experimental group. (3) It was concluded that all the experimental groups were effective in reducing truancy. (4) It was concluded that the peer-group conflict management and the individual conflict resolution experimental groups were effective in decreasing dean referrals. (5) It was further concluded that the peer group conflict management experimental group was the most effective intervention strategy in decreasing school suspensions. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 43-05A, Page 1466, 00244 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 331

Author: Dacey, John S.; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: The Results of Teaching Middle School Students Two Relaxation Techniques as Part of a Conflict Prevention Program

Journal: Research in Middle Level Education Quarterly 20(2): 91-102

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ538151

ISSN-1082-5541

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Elementary Education; Emotional Response; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Prevention; Program Effectiveness; Relaxation Training; Self Control; Sex Differences

IDENTIFIERS: Boston College Conflict Prevention Program; Conflict Management; Defense Reactions (Physiology); Middle School Students

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Boston College Conflict Prevention Program techniques for relaxation and self-control were taught to middle-school students in two Boston schools. Preliminary results from teacher interviews revealed that students spontaneously used these methods to calm their "fight-or-flight" reactions in real conflicts. Results also indicated that females preferred the visualization technique, while males preferred the breathing/muscle relaxation technique. (EV)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 133

Author: DAVENPORT, KATHLEEN ANN

Year: 1997

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONFLICT RESOLUTION/PEER MEDIATION AND SCHOOL CLIMATE AS EVIDENCED BY SELECTED CRITICAL INCIDENTS

University: FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY

Adviser: AL JURENAS

Number of Pages: 88

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9721901

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: This research study investigated the relationship between a conflict resolution/peer mediation program and school climate as evidenced by selected critical disciplinary incidents and climate surveys. Variables investigated were survey participants' status: faculty or student.The subjects of this study were 225 students and 129 faculty members of Port St. Lucie High School in St. Lucie County, Florida. The critical incidents were compared between Port St. Lucie High School which implemented the program and another comprehensive high school in St. Lucie County.

Results: The findings showed two major results: (a) although there was some increase in positive perception about school climate after the implementation of the conflict resolution/peer mediation program, it was not significant and (b) there was a decline in the rate of three of the disciplinary incidents measured, attempting to fight, fighting and striking another student were less than expected. Disrespect for others, however, was not decreased. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-02A, Page 0347, 00088 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 226

Author: Davidson, John A.; Versluys, Michelle

Year: 1999

Title: Effects of Brief Training in Cooperation and Problem Solving on Success in Conflict Resolution

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 5(2): 137-148

Keywords: Higher Education

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of short periods of training in cooperation and problem solving, which are two major components of the Conflict Resolution Model (Littlefield, et.al, 1993). Forty experimental participants were trained or not trained in each component in a 2X2 factorial design. During the evaluation phase, each experimental participant interacted with an untrained participant to make a joint recommendation on an issue about which they held opposing views. The discussions were videotaped and rated blind by two independent raters on five process measures and an outcome measure. Training in each component significantly improved success on the outcome measure, raised scores on the related process measures, and generalized to at least some of the other process measures. The only exception was brainstorming, where training was successful only in the group that also received cooperation training." Authors' abstract.

Notes: +Requests for reprints should be sent to John A. Davidson, Department of Psychology, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-30, Hobart, Australia 7001. E-mail: John.Davidson@utas.edu.au.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 227

Author: Davis, Albie

Year: 1985

Title: Dispute Resolution: The Fourth "R"

Journal: Journal of Dispute Resolution 1985: 121-139

Abstract: "Although our schools may have unintentionally contributed to the ethic of violence that threatens our world, there are subtle, but significant, signs that a new ethic based upon the principles of mediation may be developing". (p. 121) This early and influential article includes sections on a rationale for school-based mediation, program start-up, selection of school sites, general program design, selection of students, training, guidelines for mediation, and evaluation and impact. Rationale:

A. Conflict is a Natural Human State Often Accompanying Institutional Change or Personal Growth and Can be a Constructive Force When Approached with Skill.

B. Systems Which are More Appropriate and Effective Than Expulsion, Suspension, Court Intervention, and Detention are Needed to Deal with Conflict in the School Setting.

C. The Use of Mediation to Resolve School-Based Disputes Can Result in Improved Communication and Climate in Both the School and Community.

D. The Use of Mediation As a Conflict Resolution Method Can Result in a Reduction of Violence, Vandalism, Chronic School Absence and Suspension.

E. Mediation Training Helps Both Young People and Teachers Deepen Their Understanding of Themselves and Others and Provides Them with Lifetime Dispute Resolution Skills.

F. Mediation Training Encourages a Higher Level of Citizenship Activity Because It Increases Students' Interest in Conflict Resolution, Justice and the American Legal System.

G. Shifting the Responsibility for Solving Appropriate School Conflicts from Adults to Young Adults and Children Allows Teachers and Administrators to Concentrate More on Teaching and Less on Discipline.

H. Recognizing That Young People are Competent to Participate in the Resolution of Their Own Disputes Encourages Student Maturity and Gives Students Skills Such as Listening, Critical Thinking, and Problem-Solving Which are Basic to All Learning.

I. Mediation Training, With its Emphasis Upon Listening to Others' Points of View and the Peaceful Resolution of Differences, Assists in Preparing Students to Live in a Multicultural World.

J. Mediation Provides a System of Problem-Solving That is Uniquely Suited to the Personal Nature of Young Peoples' Problems; Therefore, Students Frequently Use It for Problems They Would Not Take to Parents, Teachers, or Principals.

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 228

Author: Davis, Albie M.

Year: 1986

Title: Dispute Resolution at an Early Age

Journal: Negotiation Journal: pp. 287-297

Abstract: Purpose of article: "to: focus on the contributions made to this movement by the dispute resolution field; examine several school-based conflict resolution approaches; and draw some conclusions about the values and goals of these programs and the means used to reach them. Lastly, I wish to speculate about the responsibilities, challenges, potential contradictions, and opportunities that accompany this bottom-up contemporary attempt to transform society's attitude toward conflict through early education." p.288. The article begins with a brief history of the field from 1960's to 1980's. Data is included from a school-based mediation project implemented by SMART (School Mediators Alternative Resolution Team) 1983-85 at Bryant School (highly diverse high school) in Long Island City, Queens, New York: 260 disputes resolved through mediation-90% upheld in follow-up interviews; 620 (of 3,000) students used mediation to settle problems and reconcile differences; suspensions for fighting dropped from 63 in 82-83 school year to 18 in 84-85 school year. Also included is information about Community Boards programs in San Francisco, the Hawaii School Mediation Alliance, and many other early school-based mediation programs. Characteristics of successful programs are discussed: "Successful programs share certain common characteristics, the most notable of which is collaboration between a community mediation center and a school or school system." p. 291. The first National Association for Mediation in Education [NAME] conference in 1984 is discussed. A section on "Common Themes and Objectives" concludes by setting an agenda for the field. This is an early important article in the field of school-based conflict resolution education. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 134

Author: DAY, MARGARET ANNORA

Year: 1988

Title: EFFECTS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION SESSIONS WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON EMPATHY, SOCIOMETRIC STATUS, SELF-ESTEEM AND FREQUENCY OF SELF-REPORTED CONFLICTS

University: AUBURN UNIVERSITY

Director: JOSEPH A. BUCKHALT

Number of Pages: 169

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG8918781

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The effects of conflict resolution sessions were measured with 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students. Instruction and role-playing were used to teach a format for resolving peer conflicts. This format was then used by students during daily 20-minute sessions to solve real on-going conflicts with classmates. The subjects were 58 students enrolled in summer school. Standardized tests were used to measure the effects of the sessions on three variables: empathy, sociometric status and self-esteem. Other data recorded include frequency of self-reported conflicts, frequency of deviations from the format by students and researcher adherence to program design. Teachers' response to the sessions was assessed via a questionnaire. Data were analyzed through the use of the MANOVA statistical procedure. Where significant (p.05) differences were found, univariate analyses of variance were performed.

Results: Results showed there were no significant differences between groups in either self-esteem or empathy. Group differences were found in sociometric status with the control group experiencing more positive affect for each other than the experimental around. Other data showed (1) no significant decline in the frequency of self-reported conflicts, (2) student mastery of the conflict resolution process, (3) adherence to the program by researcher and (4) positive teacher response to the program. Author

Notes: SOURCE: DAI, VOL. 50-09A, Page 2789, 00169 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 229

Author: DeCecco, J., and A. Richards

Year: 1974

Title: Growing Pains: Uses of School Conflict.

City: New York, NY

Publisher: Aberdeen Press

Abstract: "In 1974, DeCecco and Richards published the results of one of the most comprehensive studies on conflict within schools. They interviewed more than 8,000 students and 500 faculty members in more than 60 junior and senior high schools in New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco and found that more than 90 percent of the conflicts reported by students were perceived to be either unresolved or resolved in destructive ways. Moreover, negotiation of conflicts was practically nonexistent." From: Crawford, Donna and Richard Bodine Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings - Program Report, 1996, p. 67.

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 230

Author: Deguise, Philippe E.

Year: 1997

Title: Peer Mediation in High Schools: An Inquiry Into Current Research

University: Boston

Number of Pages: 23

Type of Work: Unpublished academic paper

Abstract: "The purpose of [this paper] is not to make a case for the continued development of conflict resolution skills awareness in high schools, as I believe is absolutely necessary, but to examine the current status of research and to determine its future." p. 1 Author

Notes: +Items from Deguise bibliography included here.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 26

Author: DeJong, William

Year: 1994

Title: Building the Peace: The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP)

City: Washington, DC

Institution: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice

Pages: 16

Date: August 1994

Type: evaluation report, program report

Report Number: NCJ 149549

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 135

Author: DENMARK, VICKI MICHELLE

Year: 1995

Title: A PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE PEER MEDIATION PROGRAMS IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF A LARGE URBAN SCHOOL SYSTEM

University: GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY; 0079

Number of Pages: 217

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9610045

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION

Abstract: Statement of the problem. Incidents of violence among teenagers have occurred in the communities, in the streets, and in the schools. In the spring of 1992, this large urban school system addressed the escalation of school violence by training a group of teachers, counselors, and school administrators in peer mediation. The school system has continued to train school system employees and students in mediation. Since 1992, the implementation of the peer mediation program has been expanded into the elementary, junior high, and high school settings. An evaluation of the peer mediation program in the junior high schools of this large urban school system will provide the school system's administrators with information on the effectiveness of the peer mediation program.

Methods: This study employed quantitative and qualitative procedures to investigate the effectiveness of the peer mediation programs in this large urban school system. Data were collected and analyzed on the number of student suspensions in the junior high schools. A questionnaire was distributed to educators who work in the junior high schools to determine their perceptions of the peer mediation program. Data were also collected and analyzed to determine the direct and indirect costs of the implementation and maintenance of the peer mediation program.

Results: The implementation of the peer mediation program in the junior high schools did not decrease the percentage of student suspensions for the years of 1992-1995. The survey results indicated that the perception of the effectiveness of the peer mediation program was positive by educators who were trained in mediation and by those who were not trained in mediation. The perception of the program's effectiveness was significantly higher by educators who were trained in mediation. The direct and indirect costs of the peer mediation program exceeded $360,000 with the concentration of the costs being in the areas of salaries for the mediation coordinators and for training of school personnel.

Conclusions: The data revealed that the peer mediation program has not positively effected the number of students suspensions in the junior high schools since its inception in 1992-1993. The results of the survey indicated that the overall perception of the contribution and effectiveness of the peer mediation program in the junior high schools was positive. The direct and indirect costs of the implementation and maintenance of the peer mediation program was approximately $360,00 for the school from 1991--1995. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-12A, Page 4662, 00217 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 27

Author: Deutsch, M.; Khattri, N.; Mitchell, M.; Tepavac, L..; Zhang, Q.; Weitzman., E.A.; Lynch, R.

Year: 1992

Title: The effects of training in conflict resolution and cooperative learning in an alternative high school

City: New York, NY

Institution: International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution, Teachers College, Columbia University

Date: March 1992

Type: program evaluation report

Pages: 440

Keywords: conflict resolution, cooperative learning, single school

Abstract: This paper provides an in-depth description of the implementation of trainings in conflict resolution and cooperative learning at an alternative high school in New York City. The cooperative learning training, focusing on group process skills, was developed using David and Roger Johnson's model. The conflict resolution training, emphasizing violence prevention, used the basic principles presented in Deutsch's theoretical model. The paper describes the theoretical assumptions and hypotheses established prior to the trainings, the training of teachers and administrators, and the content of the trainings themselves. The study completed of this training consisted of: questionnaires administered to 350 students prior to and following their training; work performance ratings from the supervisors of students who had taken part in training; a Behavior Rating Scale filled out by teachers; observations made of training sessions and various classroom and non-classroom activities; and interviews with teachers and administrators.

Conclusions: The results of the study indicated the following: 1) As students improved their skills in managing conflict, they received increased social support and less victimization by others, resulting in increased self-esteem and positive feelings and decreased anxiety and depression; 2) The trainings seemed to lead to higher academic and work performance by the students; 3) Students, teachers and administrators generally felt positive about the training and its results. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 231

Author: Diekmann, Catherine H.

Year: 1999

Title: Research-Based Effectiveness of the Peace Education Foundation Model

City: Miami, FL

Institution: Peace Education Foundation

Pages: 15

Date: 1999

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 136

Author: DOLEZAL, CURTIS L.

Year: 1991

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING/COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND SELF-ESTEEM (COOPERATIVE LEARNING)

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Sponsor: MORTON DEUTSCH

Number of Pages: 112

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9209810

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between interpersonal relationships and the intrapersonal determination of self-worth. Conflict resolution training and cooperative learning programs were implemented in three inner-city high schools by The International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR), directed by Morton Deutsch. Pretest and posttest survey data were collected from the students and a significant increase in self-esteem was noted. This research is designed to better understand the relationship between the interventions and the enhanced self-esteem. It was hypothesized that both interventions should increase social competency, thereby improving interpersonal relationships. The sources of self-esteem are discussed, showing the critical role of social feedback and interpersonal relationships in the estimation of personal worth. From infancy on, self is seen as good or bad largely depending on the responses of significant others. Therefore, we propose a model whereby improved interpersonal dynamics result in a more positive self-image. Several instruments contained in the student surveys were relevant and seventy-one students were selected on the basis of a complete data set. The students were mostly Black and Hispanic, and included both males and females.

Results: Multiple regression analyses indicate a relationship between exposure to the interventions and interpersonal improvement. The level of constructive conflict behavior is supported as a mediating variable. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the ICCCR interventions in improving relationships through teaching social skills, particularly perspective-taking and respect for the opinions of others. In addition to the pretest self-esteem score, the best predictor of higher posttest self-esteem scores is lower levels of destructive conflict behavior. This score reflects conflict avoidance, the use of insults, and anger toward others, suggesting that such anti-social actions and attitudes may be a projection of self-hatred. A significant inverse relationship between self-esteem and anxiety further illustrates the emotional consequences of low self-esteem. General support for our model indicates interpersonal phenomena significantly impact one's self-image. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 53-01B, Page 0608, 00112 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 28

Author: Drug Strategies

Year: 1998

Title: Safe Schools/Safe Students: A Guide to Violence Prevention Strategies

City: Washington, D.C.

Institution: Drug Strategies, William T. Grant Foundation

Pages: 56

Date: June 1998

Type: analysis, program report, programming guide

Keywords: violence prevention

Abstract: The introduction states that this report "offers a systematic approach to violence prevention in schools. It is designed to assist school officials in choosing prevention strategies that will best meet the needs of their students." The guide assesses prevention programs for general classroom populations. Two critical elements of violence prevention are identified: normative change - influencing school climate and promoting a peaceful school norm; and life skills training - helping students develop skills, attitudes and values that will help them avoid destructive influences. Life skills most often believed to reduce violence include: anger management, empathy and perspective taking, social problem solving, media resistance, social resistance, communication, general social skills or peace building to maintain positive relationships. Key elements of promising VP programs are identified and potentially harmful elements of programs are noted. Other sections of the guide include evaluation information and a section on developing effective strategies.

Programs evaluated are divided into three sections: normative change, life skills violence prevention, and peer mediation. Program descriptions include general program elements, areas of strength, special elements, extras; concerns of reviewers, areas for improvement; and evaluation findings regarding the program. Other program information given: year created; cost; program quality; developmental appropriateness; ease of administration; teacher training; and program coverage. The 84 programs listed include comprehensive health programs; K-12 programs; elementary school programs; elementary-middle school programs; middle-high school programs; and peer mediation programs. MB

Notes: +Drug Strategies, 2445 M Street, NW, Suite 480, Washington, DC 20037. 202-663-6110. E-mail dspolicy@aol.com; http://www.drugstrategies.org

URL: http://www.drugstrategies.org/pubs.html

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 232

Author: Drug Strategies

Year: 1998

Title: The Methodology of Safe Schools/Safe Students: A Technical Report

City: Washington, DC

Institution: Drug Strategies

Pages: 42

Date: June 26, 1998

Notes: Drug Strategies, 2445 M Street, NW, Suite 480, Washington, D.C. 20037

URL: http://www.drugstrategies.org

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 233

Author: Dudley, B.S.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T.

Year: 1996

Title: Conflict resolution training and middle school students' integrative negotiation behavior

Journal: Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26: 2038-2052

Notes: Reference in Drug Strategies document.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 29

Author: DuRant, Robert H., Ph.D.; Treiber, Frank, Ph.D.; Getts, Alan, M.D.; McCloud, Karl; Linder, Charles W., M.D.; Woods, Elizabeth R., M.D., MPH

Year: 1996

Title: School-Based Violence Prevention

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health 19(2): pp 111-117

Abstract: This study used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design to compare two curricula:

Conflict Resolution: A Curriculum for Youth Care Providers, National Resource Center for Youth Services, Tulsa, OK, 1990, is an adapted version of Conflict Resolution: A Secondary School Curriculum published by The Community Board Program, San Francisco, CA, 1986.

Violence prevention Curriculum for Adolescents, Prothrow-Stith, D., Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc., 1987.

From the abstract: "Both curricula were successful in reducing three indicators of violence. However, the conflict resolution approach was more successful in reducing the frequency of more severe physical fights requiring medical treatment. The latter finding is of particular importance since physical fighting is the form of violence behavior in which young adolescents most often engage."MB

Notes: +

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 137

Author: EDDY, MARTHA HART

Year: 1998

Title: THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN EDUCATIONAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH (EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS, PREVENTION, MIDDLE SCHOOLS, HIGH SCHOOLS)

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE

Sponsor: WILLIAM G. ANDERSON

Number of Pages: 430

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9909416

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PHYSICAL; DANCE; EDUCATION, ART; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; RECREATION

Abstract: This qualitative research investigates six highly regarded "violence prevention programs" that incorporate physical activity within middle schools, high schools, and agencies throughout the United States. Questions emerged from a review of conflict resolution, bullying, gun law education, and moral development curricula, including skills such as cooperation, peace-making, multicultural awareness, emotional intelligence, fair-play, and social responsibility. Through observations, document analysis, and interviews, the investigator has learned about teaching strategies that included role-playing, adventure programming, cooperative games, traditional martial arts, sports, somatic awareness, dance, drama, and non-verbal expression, as well as the use of competition.

Results: The findings also reveal factors that facilitate implementation of these curricula within health, theater, physical education, and after-school programs. Most notable are the empathic teaching tactics employed, and the accountability established "within a small community." Rationales for the use of physical activity include adolescents' need to move, the enhanced development of trust through physical involvement, the occurrence of conflicts during physical interactions allowing for "real" negotiation, and the holistic outcomes of increased mind-body discipline, alertness, and self-confidence. Whereas "blowing off steam" through movement to control anger is occasionally seen, in these programs role-modeling, engaging students in problem-solving, and the provision of choices are found to be essential teaching methods. A system of classification has emerged for determining the role that a particular physical activity has played in the enhancement of awareness, self-control, or readiness to respond to violence. A matrix is created that incorporates movements for avoidance, self-defense, assertiveness, or peaceable responses to violence. For example, using self-control while being assertive is practiced by respecting all rules during karate-style sparring, or by not hurting anyone while dancing forcefully to depict violence or anger. Games and rules that require keeping one's body alert for signs of danger and improving one's running skills are practiced to increase the students' readiness to avoid violence. Finally, teachers' and administrators' perceptions are reported, including specific data about the appropriateness and the impact of each type of physical activity. How to organize movement-based lessons with regard for gender, economic background, racial, and cultural issues is discussed. Implications for teacher training are also presented. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-10A, Page 3771, 00430 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 332

Author: Eisler, Judith

Year: 1994

Title: Project Schools Teaching Options for Peace (STOP) Teen Mediation Project, 1993- 94. OER Report

Pages: 93

Call Number: ERIC Identifier: ED380750

Keywords: Descriptors: Adolescents; Conflict Resolution; Educational Environment; Evaluation; Helping Relationship; Interpersonal

Communication; Peer Counseling; Problem Solving; School Safety; Secondary Education; Training

Identifiers: New York City Board of Education; Peer Mediation; Project STOP NY; Training Effectiveness

Abstract: Project STOP, a comprehensive conflict resolution program, was piloted in 15 middle schools in 1991-92. This report provides an overview of STOP's inception and results. The project incorporated three components to help schools deal

more effectively with conflict: (1) student peer mediation; (2) classroom instruction in conflict resolution; and (3) parent training. The report is divided into four sections. An introduction gives a project overview and discusses evaluation issues and methodology. A second part describes the experiences and perceptions of participants and outlines the conflict resolution training and support. The largest section, section 3, gives particulars on project implementation and assessment and includes information on mediation, curriculum, parent training, and other facets of the program. Section 4 measures some of the successes of STOP and offers recommendations. In terms of success, some of the indicators of the program's viability included its endorsement by many in the school community, the incorporation of the STOP curriculum in instructional styles, a recognition of alternatives to violence and a place to go in the school where problems can be resolved peacefully, students mediating cases successfully, increases in the number of students who want to be mediators, and in the number of self-referrals to mediation. (RJM)

Notes: ERIC; Available from: Office of Educational Research, 110 Livingston Street, Room 740, Brooklyn, NY 11201.

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED380750.htm

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 30

Author: Eisler, Judith A.; Lane, Peggy; Mei, Lori

Year: 1995

Title: A comprehensive conflict resolution training program

Journal: ERS Spectrum

Keywords: district-wide, negotiation, peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 234

Author: Elliot, D.

Year of Conference: 1994

Title: Children and Violence Conference

Conference Name: Aspen Institute's Children's Policy Forum

Conference Location: Queenstown, MD

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 138

Author: ELLSWORTH, MARGARET ANN

Year: 1993

Title: MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS LEARNING LANGUAGE FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN A COMMUNITY IN CONFLICT: A BOOK OF LESSONS OR A WAY OF BEING? (SCHOOL VIOLENCE, PEER MEDIATION)

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

ADVISER: Supervisor: DAVID B. BILLS

Number of Pages: 289

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9421122

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE; LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: This study focused on students' learning and use of language for conflict resolution in a racially diverse midwestern intermediate school of seven hundred students. The school implemented a peer mediation program and infused a conflict resolution curriculum. A committee of teachers, administrators, and a counselor selected and trained thirty students as peer mediators known as conflict managers in October. These conflict managers conducted mediation sessions for approximately 700 disputants during the school year. Ethnographic methods were used to collect data in classrooms and throughout the school. I was a participant observer from mid-October 1991 to May 1992. Informal and formal interviews with students, teachers, and administrators were audio tape recorded and transcribed. Observations were recorded in field notes. Student writing, posters, and school bulletins were also analyzed. The Community Board Conflict Resolution Curriculum was taught to the conflict managers in a two-day training session and to the rest of the students throughout the year. Students learned how their response to a conflict can lead to personal growth and stronger friendships. They learned active listening, restatement, nonverbal communication, I-messages to express feelings, and a problem solving process for conflict resolution. The curriculum did not directly address multicultural awareness or bias and prejudice reduction. Implementation of conflict resolution involved two dilemmas: underpreparation of staff and the aggressive climate of the school and community.

Results: Though students used mediation, that did not lower the number of fights and referrals in the first year. The increase may have resulted from an increase in racial tension in the community, a new principal, or backlash after the assistant principal was injured breaking up a fight. While school climate surveys and self-esteem inventories showed teachers, students, and parents perceived positive increases, the reasons for choosing these measures and their appropriateness in evaluating the program were not clear. Despite the persistence of fights during the year of implementation in this school and the limitations of the curriculum, I argue that students who learn conflict resolution acquire skills to take responsibility for conflict in their own lives and a better understanding of conflict in society. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-03A, Page 0456, 00289 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 139

Author: EMERSON, JOHN MARSHALL

Year: 1990

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION FOR STUDENTS: A STUDY OF PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PEER CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Academic Dept.: UNIVERSITY OF OREGON

Number of Pages: 238

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9111108

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GENERAL; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION

Abstract: The last decade has seen increasing interest in teaching conflict resolution in school settings. There has been a proliferation of programmatic and curricular activities which reflect the belief that learning about conflict and its resolution should begin at an early age. Schools are engaged in a range of activities: some have developed peer mediation programs; others are creating curricula about conflict resolution; and still others are training school staffs in conflict-resolution skills. This study investigates the management of conflict on the playgrounds of four elementary schools in Oregon. The objective of these conflict manager programs is to train elementary students to use communication, problem-solving, and conflict-resolution skills to improve the social and learning environment of the schools and to decrease hostility, violence, and antisocial behavior in the peer group. The data consist of observations of conflict managers being trained and interviews with counselors, trainers, principals, teachers, student conflict managers, disputants, non-disputants, and parents.

Results: Results indicate that students can learn to facilitate problem solving with their peers and influence school climate in positive ways, depending on the amount and quality of their training. Key findings for administrators and counselors wishing to implement conflict-manager programs in elementary schools include: (a) students can participate in running their schools by intervening in minor discipline cases before they get out of hand; (b) most trainers do not understand mediation, or training, nor can they execute group process skills, thus many conflict managers are being improperly trained; (c) improperly trained conflict managers frequently are viewed as policemen and disliked by their peers; (d) elementary students can undergo conflict-manager training all day long and not get bored; (e) when conflict managers are not allowed to play during duty time, they find many problems to solve; (f) when the key trainer is transferred, the program will probably cease; and (g) a network of trainers can be supportive in keeping the program going, especially during its first year. An important implication of the study is that students can participate effectively in classroom and school-wide problem solving and decision making to enhance the quality of school climate. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 51-11A, Page 3565, 00238 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 140

Author: ENGERT, INGRID URSULA

Year: 1996

Title: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PEER MEDIATION IN A MIDDLE SCHOOL CONTEXT (CONFLICT RESOLUTION, VIOLENCE PREVENTION)

Academic Dept.: UNIVERSITY OF OREGON

Number of Pages: 298

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9638084

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, HEALTH

Abstract: Many teachers voice a growing concern about student behavior and the increasing inability of their students to solve conflicts in a nonviolent manner. Assisting them in the peaceful resolution of their conflicts has become an integral part of many schools, which are unwillingly placed in the position of having to assume parental duties. One way to reduce violence and to teach students the procedures and skills required for resolving conflicts constructively is to engage them in a peer mediation program, which provides a structured forum for the resolution of interpersonal conflicts. This study follows the implementation and maintenance of a peer mediation program at a middle school over the course of 24 months and provides a thorough understanding of peer mediation as a school-based, primary prevention program. It describes the benefits of the program and identifies major challenges during its operation. The data gathered were derived from a variety of observations, interviews, questionnaires and document analysis focusing on implementation issues and the perception of the program held by the people who use it, operate it or provide essential support for it.

Results: The study suggests that peer mediation is a valuable component in the field of violence prevention and that it has the potential to fulfill the needs of students and teachers. Over the course of 2 years, this peer mediation program has demonstrated that its success depends on various factors in the school. This study suggests that such a program needs continual active support and constant monitoring to improve its quality. In addition, it needs to be tailored to the target group, which, in the case of a particular field site, means providing an additional skill base to undergird mediators' efforts. The study provides recommendations regarding how to improve the program and provides data that enable other schools to learn from the implementation experience. The conclusions reached here underscore the importance of conducting more research on a longitudinal level and attempting to shed light on the problems that arise once the novelty effect diminishes. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-07A, Page 2876, 00298 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 141

Author: ENSLEY, CHEYRL MANSFIELD

Year: 1998

Title: THE IMPACT OF A CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM UTILIZING PEER MEDIATIONTRAINING ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS AT A LOUISIANA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Academic Dept.: EDD

University: TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY-COMMERCE

Adviser: PANKAKE, ANITA

Number of Pages: 78

Type of Work: Dissertation

Accession Number: AAT 9829511

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION (0514); EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: This study reviewed existing literature and research on school conflict resolution programs. The purpose of this study was to examine a conflict resolution program utilizing peer mediation in a Louisiana elementary school and to determine if participation in a mediation training program brings about changes in students' knowledge and attitudes concerning conflict and the approaches to conflict resolution. Employing a customized assessment instrument, specifically the study concentrated on the influence of peer mediation on four underlying factors affecting knowledge and attitude measured by The Revised Student Attitudes About Conflict Scale. These factors include the students' attachment and/or commitment to their school, the students' self-concept and their relationship to their peers, the students' knowledge of approaches to conflict and problem solving, and the students' perception of their social skills and social relations abilities. The Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was utilized in the investigation. Data for this investigation were secured at an elementary school in Louisiana. The target population for this study consisted of 70 fourth grade students who were randomly placed in the experimental group or the control group. The counselor of the school conducted peer mediation training with the experimental group using Creative Problem Solving for Kids.

Results: Results indicated that fourth grade students who received peer mediation training and those who did not receive peer mediation training had similar school attachment and commitment scores as well as similar social skills and interpersonal relations scores. Results further indicated that the self-concept and peer relations scores of fourth grade students were not significantly affected by peer mediation training. However, peer mediation training did produce a significant effect on fourth grade students' knowledge of problem solving and conflict resolution skills.

Conclusion: This study concludes that conflict resolution-peer mediation programs should continue to be implemented by schools. Conflict resolution programs utilizing peer mediation do produce positive effects on fourth grade students' knowledge of problem solving and conflict resolution skills. Additionally, research findings of this study suggest that conflict resolution-peer mediation programs offer viable opportunities for students to learn skills that have wider applications. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/04, p. 1020, Oct 1998. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 142

Author: EPSTEIN, TRINA

Year: 1998

Title: SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM: AN INQUIRY INTO THE NEEDS OF TEACHERS AND SUBSEQUENT TRAINING PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

University: RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY, G.S.A.P.P.;

Chairperson: MAURICE J. ELIAS

Number of Pages: 194

Type of Work: Dissertation PSY.D.

Accession Number: AAG9903742

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: A needs assessment survey was conducted with second through fourth grade public school teachers in Middlesex County and Union County to determine their training needs in the area of social-emotional learning. Teachers received a survey instrument via their school principals which had the following two purposes: to examine general teacher training factors and pragmatic issues that affect teachers' participation in professional development experiences; and to learn more specifically about teachers' training needs in the area of social-emotional learning in the classroom. One-hundred and two surveys were returned.

Results: Results indicated that teachers are interested in receiving further training in the area of social-emotional learning and implications of specific results are discussed. Survey information was then used to design a training program for the purpose of educating elementary teachers in social-emotional learning, and more specifically in the following areas that were deemed by survey respondents to be of most importance: teamwork/getting along; conflict resolution; involving parents in the social-emotional process; helping children to recognize and appropriately express their emotions; and helping children to understand and accept cultural differences. Through this program, teachers will obtain teaching materials and learn practical techniques for implementing a teamwork and conflict resolution program with their students, thereby increasing teachers' levels of knowledge and skill in the area of teaching Social-emotional learning. Training Participants will have many opportunities to interact with colleagues and to experience follow-up consultation which will help them throughout the program implementation phase. Program design elements, such as components, goals, and evaluation plans are outlined. Finally, limitations of the project and implications for the role of the school psychologist are discussed. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-08A, Page 2849, 00194 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 235

Author: Eron, L. D.

Year: 1987

Title: Aggression through the ages.

Journal: School Safety: Special issue on bullies: 12-17

Notes: Published by National School Safety Center, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA; Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 236

Author: Ezzo, Jo Ann

Year: 1994

Title: "Sixteen Principles for Creating a Healthy Program

Journal: The Fourth R 52: p. 12

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

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Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 237

Author: Farrington, D.P.

Year: 1991

Title: Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and later life outcomes

Editor: Pepler, D.J.; Rugin, K. H.

Book Title: The development and treatment of childhood aggression

City: Hillsdale, NJ

Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum

Pages: 5-31

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 238

Author: Feeney, M.C.; Davidson, J.A.

Year: 1996

Title: Bridging the gap between the practical and the theoretical: An evaluation of a conflict resolution model

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 2(3): 255-269

Abstract: "This study investigated the validity of the Conflict Resolution Model (Wertheim, et.al., 1992), and evaluated the components of the model that are influenced by contextual cues. The 48 volunteers for conflict resolution training were randomly allocated to a trained or untrained condition. The trained group received 3 hours of conflict resolution training a week for 3 weeks prior to a testing phase. Participants were tested in 1 of 3 dyad types (trained-trained, trained-untrained, or untrained-untrained) and worked together to resolve a problem on which they held conflicting views. In terms of process, there were significant increases in all integrative resolution measures for trained participants. In addition, working with a trained partner increased brainstorming and possibly cooperation, but not active listening or appropriate assertiveness. On the outcome measure, trained-trained dyads were superior to trained-untrained, which were superior to untrained-untrained." Authors' abstract

[Wertheim, E.H.; Love, A.; Littlefield, L.;& Peck, C. (1992). I win, you win: How to have fewer conflicts, better solutions, and more satisfying relationships. Melbourne, Australia: Penguin. ]

Notes: Requests for reprints should be sent to John A. Davidson, Department of Psychology, University of Tasmania, P. O. Box 252C, Hobart, Australia 7001. E-mail: john.davidson@psychol.utas.edu.au.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 143

Author: FERRARA, JUDITH MARIE

Year: 1994

Title: FOURTH AND FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS AS PROBLEM FINDERS WITHIN THE DISCOURSE OF MEDIATION (FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS)

University: UNIVERSITY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE

Director: THOMAS NEWKIRK

Number of Pages: 301

Accession Number: AAG9506413

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe from students' perspectives how a peer mediation program became part of one urban elementary school's culture during six months of program implementation. Peer mediation is a process which enables disputing students to voluntarily resolve conflicts with the help of a pair of trained student mediators and without the direct participation of adults. Descriptions of students' perceptions of the role of mediator and the mediation process grew from field notes, interview transcripts, video transcripts and print documentation gathered by the researcher in her roles as participant observer and mediation program coordinator/trainer. The focus that emerged during analysis of data was the mediators' propensity for problem finding and solving within the mediation model with respect to issues of time, problems with students (teasing, joking, interrupting, honesty, no solutions to conflicts) and problems with co-mediators. Mediators perceived these behaviors as problematic because of their acquired knowledge of mediation Discourse and their expectations of what constituted a normal relationship to trust and confidentiality also developed as a result of adults' indirect involvement in the process.

Results: Data were interpreted in two ways: mediation perceived by students as a complex social interaction and, at times, as an adversarial "us" versus "them" relationship that appeared to conflict with the cooperative problem solving beliefs of mediation. Parallel findings were related to the school's socially and economically diverse neighborhood, which was suggested as being a microcosm of the current urban American culture. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-10A, Page 3089, 00301 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 333

Author: Fine, Esther Sokolov

Year: 1997

Title: Shaping and Reshaping Practice: Preparing Teachers for Peacemaking

Journal: Theory into Practice 36(1): 53-58

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ546691

ISSN-0040-5841

Label: IDENTIFIERS: Ontario (Toronto); York University ON

PUBLICATION_TYPE: 080; 141

LANGUAGE: English

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Bias; Conflict Resolution; Elementary Education; Elementary School Teachers; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Holistic Approach; Peace; Preservice Teacher Education; Problem Solving; Public Schools; Student Teacher Attitudes; Student Teachers; Student Teaching; Teacher Role

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Describes several exploratory sites where peacemaking is becoming an integral part of teacher education and reeducation within a university, research site, and student teaching practicum. The paper introduces a peacemaking school, highlighting shared learning of an experienced and a student teacher who wrote, read, talked, listened, and problem solved in their classroom. (SM)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 144

Author: FINLEY, MARY KATHERINE

Year: 1997

Title: "HE SAID/SHE SAID": A CASE STUDY OF BARRIERS AND ENABLERS IN A RURAL MIDDLE SCHOOL CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM (RURAL EDUCATION, PEER MEDIATION)

University: SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY AT CARBONDALE

Major Professors: WILLIAM E. EATON; BRIAN M. MCCADDEN

Number of Pages: 206

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9738042

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; Institutionalization

Abstract: The research question "What are the barriers impeding the initiation and implementation of a peer mediation program and how did the case study school overcome them?" led to selection of Timberwolf middle school (a pseudonym) for case study. Questions of how and why the school implemented a peer mediation program, what barriers and enablers were encountered, how administrative processes supported peer mediation; how leadership and school structure interrelated to the context of change, and how peer mediation supports peaceable school concepts were also addressed. Qualitative case study methods were utilized at a rural, mid-sized middle school. Data collection encompassed interviews with teachers, administrators, and students; observation of the school including meetings and advisory periods; and a review of middle school and peer mediation program documents. Chapter Four contains rich descriptions of the school and peer mediation program, using extensive quotations. Recent implementation of the middle school concept, turnover of building administrators, and a violent incident occurred before the start of the peer mediation program.

Results: Having the support of the district and community, few barriers existed in program initiation. Implementation barriers were found in student selection and training, ongoing support and promotion, and lack of evaluation. Program enablers were those supported by middle school constructs, while barriers occurred when program design deviated from middle school design and stood alone. The peer mediation program trained 15 eighth graders each year and was co-ordinated by the guidance counselor, who was not teamed with school staff. Peaceable school constructs (Bodine, Crawford, & Schrumpf, 1994) present were cooperative learning, responsibility-based disciplinary system, and the peer mediation program. No school-wide commitment to staff development of conflict resolution skills or the peaceable school model existed. The peer mediation program seemed to stand alone, and peaceable school constructs were incidental to middle school principles and safety and discipline needs. Questions left unanswered include what program evaluation should involve, the interrelationship between middle school and peaceable school constructs, and the impact of conflict resolution programs upon school culture. Appendices include a formative study interview guide, bibliographic data base, and individual and focus group interview guides. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 1998, 00206 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 145

Author: FISHER, PATRICIA HAWKINS

Year: 1994

Title: THE EFFECTS OF AN URBAN MIDDLE SCHOOL DROPOUT PREVENTION PROGRAM ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ATTENDANCE, ATTITUDES, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS OF AT-RISK STUDENT (AT RISK, URBAN EDUCATION)

University: OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

Chair: JACK E. ROBINSON

Number of Pages: 167

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9505877

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an urban middle school dropout prevention program on the academic achievement, attendance, attitudes toward self and school, and conflict resolution skills of potential dropout candidates. The study compared the differences in grade point averages and Iowa Test of Basic Skills scores, percentages of absences, self concept and motivation towards school scores, and the percentage of suspensions of subjects in three middle schools in Portsmouth, Virginia. A review of literature revealed that traditional dropout prevention efforts have addressed the dropout dilemma with varying degrees of success. More recent dropout initiatives have focused on addressing the physical, social, psychological, and educational needs of at-risk students and early intervention. Additionally, the inclusion of a holistic dropout approach can have positive effects on school related dropout predictors of middle school students.Three defined groups of middle school at-risk students represented levels of the independent variable. Subjects in group one (N = 32) were participants in the CAPP holistic dropout treatment at Cradock Middle School. Subjects in group two (N = 24) were members of an intact split grade level class at Hunt-Mapp Middle School who did not receive dropout intervention. This group served as a control group. Subjects in group three (N = 18) were assigned to an intact class at Churchland Middle School who participated in an academic remediation treatment. Post intervention data were collected from school records on grade point averages, Iowa composite scaled test scores, percentage of absences, and percentage of suspensions. One-way analyses of variance were used to analyze the dependent variables. A one-way analysis of variance was also employed to measure an attitude subscale relevant to conflict management. Additionally, postmeasures on five subscales of the School Attitude Measures inventory were collected and analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance.

Results: The findings of the analyses revealed that the grade point averages and school attendance percentages for subjects in CAPP were significantly higher than subjects in the two comparison groups. CAPP subjects also scored higher, overall, on the attitude inventory. As a result of this study, information was provided that contributed to the assessment of the Portsmouth Public Middle Schools dropout prevention program. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-09A, Page 2696, 00167 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 239

Author: Flory, Gary L.

Year: 1997

Title: Conflict Resolution Across the Curriculum

Journal: The Fourth R, The Newsletter of the National Association for Mediation in Education (now the Conflict Resolution Education Network). Vol 79

Keywords: Higher Education

URL: http://www.mtds.wayne.edu/article/Flory.html

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 146

Author: FREDERIKSON, JOHN K.

Year: 1998

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL SAFETY AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION (SAFETY)

University: UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA

Adviser: ROBERTA D. EVANS

Number of Pages: 134

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9841102

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; SOCIOLOGY, SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between pro-social programming and intervention strategies for at-risk behavior in Class A and AA high schools in Montana participating in the 1997 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey. As a descriptive correlational study, student's behaviors were the dependent variables and the programming and intervention strategies outlined by the schools' principals were the independent variables. The sample consists of 30 schools representing approximately 64% of the students enrolled in Montana high schools. Thirty-six principals returned surveys, for a return rate of 97%. Approximately 48 percent of the sample population is male and 52 percent is female. Ninth-graders account for the majority of the sample (35%),

ranging to a low of 19% in grade 12. White students comprise 85% of the sample, 7% American Indian, 2% Hispanic, 1% Asian, 5% Black, and 4% self-identified as "other."

Results: The study determined the existence of a statistically significant relationship between the school pro-social programming/intervention programming/policy strategies and the behaviors exhibited by the students in the sample. It further determined that students whose schools provide pro-social programming intervention programming and policies promoting social integration experience less violence than students from schools which do not provide such programming and structure. Students whose schools provided pro-social programming, intervention programming and policies promoting social integration experienced less crime, tobacco use, drug use, sexual behavior, driving when drinking alcohol, and suicide ideation than students from schools which do not provide such programming and structure. Pro-social programs were determined to be diverse in their levels of effectiveness. The "Programming Power Score" was developed to illuminate the difference in effect and may provide administrators concerned with school safety a means to assess their efforts, enabling them to select programs that have the greatest impact. Results from this study revealed that schools with programs in conflict resolution, problem-solving skills, peer mediation and in-school suspension--combined with a resource officer at their disposal--provided the safest environments. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-07A, Page 2266, 00134 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 31

Author: Fuller, R. M.; Kimsey, W. D.; McKinney, B.C.

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: School-Based Dispute Systems Design: Communication Training In Tolerance of Other Ethnic Groups

Conference Name: National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution

Conference Location: Portland, OR

Pages: 24

Abstract: From the abstract: "This study reports the results of pre-test and post-test data collected during the establishment of a Conflict Manager Program in Oakland Elementary School, Roanoke Public Schools, Roanoke, VA. ... Results indicate that, after the establishment of the conflict manager program, fewer conflicts occur, less adult intervention is required, increased student objectivity, improved attitudes concerning positive conflict resolution methods. In general, results of this study suggest that the school environment is significantly improved after establishing a conflict manger program and there is evidence to suggest that the positive effects flow into the community and into students' homes." Authors

Notes: +

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 147

Author: GARRETT, DARHYL

Year: 1994

Title: ONFLICT RESOLUTION AMONG SELECTED CO-VICTIMIZED URBAN AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS

University: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY

Adviser: ALAN HOFFMAN

Number of Pages: 130

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9519890

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; BLACK STUDIES

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between co- victimization and conflict resolution among African- American adolescents. The participants were examined for their conflict resolution methods towards friends, strangers, and family. They were administered the Violence Screening Form to assess their exposure to violence. The Adapted Version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) were administered to assess their conflict resolution towards friends, strangers and family, respectively. The participants' grade point average was used as a covariate.

Results: The results indicated that there were significant differences in the mean scores based on sex in reference to the use of hostility toward friends and the use of verbal aggression toward family. The results also indicated that there were significant differences in the mean scores based on sex in reference to the use of hostility toward friends, the use of hostility toward strangers, and the use of verbal aggression toward family, when controlling for their academic performances. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-02A, Page 0462, 00130 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 148

Author: GARRICK, MARCIA GREGOR

Year: 1990

Title: ELEMENTARY TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR INSTRUCTIONAL STYLES IN THE TEACHING OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

University: PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Chair: JOHN LIND

Number of Pages: 124

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9115728

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, INTERCULTURAL

Abstract: In order to assess current practices in the teaching of conflict resolution, this study examined (through survey methods) the perceptions of teachers in three Oregon school districts of similar size regarding the techniques they use to teach conflict resolution skills to their students, teachers' perceptions of the frequency of the use of those techniques, and teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of those techniques. This study also compared the responses of teachers in school districts which provided teachers with staff development for the teaching of conflict resolution with the responses of those teachers from districts without that staff development. In addition, the survey examined the impact of cooperative learning on the teaching of conflict resolution. Data were reported in terms of frequency distribution, Spearman Correlation analysis, Chi Square, and Phi Correlations.

Results: The results indicate that elementary teachers use a wide variety of techniques to teach students how to get along with one another. Although they favor certain techniques, they do not use one technique to the exclusion of another. The hypothesis that demographic criteria may be linked to teachers' responses to the use of certain techniques was also rejected. Comparisons between responses of teachers from districts which supplied staff development for the teaching of conflict resolution and responses from teachers from districts which did not do so are inconclusive. Possible reasons may stem from different but, perhaps, equally enriching programs for the teaching of conflict resolution. Cooperative Learning is not primarily used as a method to teach conflict resolution. Those who use it, however, indicated that they saw increased conflict resolution skills as a by-product of that teaching method. The data gleaned in this survey would indicate that the following be considered when implementing a program for the teaching of conflict resolution: Conflict is a natural state which accompanies change and can act as a constructive force. Conflict in the classroom can provide a creative tension which helps to inspire problem-solving. Well-handled conflict can have benefits for increasing student motivation and may result in higher achievement and greater understanding of the subject. Conflict itself may prove to be an effective component of specific lessons. One apparent advantage to teaching appropriate use of conflict resolution is that if students know from their own experience that social relations need not be adversarial and that they can share power without losing influence, children may be better prepared to grow as global citizens. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 52-01A, Page 0067, 00124 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 240

Author: Genser, Lillian Mellen

Year: 1989

Title: Peace Education--A Response to Violence in Detroit

Journal: Journal of Orthopsychiatry 52(4): 238-246

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 32

Author: Gentry, D.B.; Benenson, W.A.

Year: 1992

Title: School-age mediators transfer knowledge and skills to home setting

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 10(1): 101-109

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 33

Author: George, Yvette; Keiter, Joel; Halpin, Glennelle; Dagnese, Donna

Year of Conference: 1995

Title: Effect of Peaceful Solutions' Peer Mediation Training on Knowledge and Skills of Elementary Students.

Conference Name: Mid-South Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Biloxi, Mississippi

Publisher: Positive Connections, Inc.

Date: November 1995

Keywords: multiple schools - 7, peer mediation

Abstract: Research questions for this peer mediation study were:

o During a 13 Ĺ hour training program, will elementary students (a) learn peer mediation vocabulary?

(b) gain knowledge related to the peer mediation process? (c) acquire an understanding of peer mediation so as to have a stronger sense of self-efficacy with regard to the resolution of conflicts?

o Will sex and/or socioeconomic status interact with training to yield differential effects for (a) boys and

girls and/or (b) low, medium or high socioeconomic status (SES)?

Methodology: Using the Peaceful Solutions Peer Mediation Training Program, two trained adult mediators conducted 13 hours of training (six 2 1/4 hour sessions) at seven elementary schools with 26-28 students per school in Grades 3 through 6. Prior to participation in the training program, the students were administered a 20-item pretest assessing peer mediation knowledge of vocabulary (10 items), process (5 items) and self-efficacy (5-items). The same instrument was administered as a post-test at the conclusion of the training. Multi-variate and univariate analyses of variance were used to answer the research questions/test the null hypotheses.

Findings: Students who participated in the Peaceful Solutions training program significantly increased their peer mediation vocabulary, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Future questions: Are girls more adept at resolving conflicts as this study indicates? Why? What is the basis for the apparent relationship between peer mediation and socioeconomic status? Is training especially helpful for low socioeconomic boys and girls as the interactions indicated? MB

Notes: +Positive Connections, Inc., 6278 North Federal Highway, Suite 155, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33308, 407-483-5589

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 334

Author: George, Yvetta; Halpin, Glennelle; Halpin, Gerald; Dagnese, Donna;; Keiter, Joel

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Gender and Grade Differences in Elementary Students' Perceptions of Conflict/Violence and Intervention Strategies

Conference Name: Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Memphis, TN

Pages: 15

Date: November 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED415954

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Age Differences; Conflict Resolution; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Peer Counseling; Sex Differences; Student Attitudes; Television Viewing; Violence

DENTIFIERS: Peer Mediation

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This study examined sex and age differences in elementary school students' perceptions of conflict and violence and of the effectiveness of various intervention strategies to resolve conflicts. A total of 51 third-graders, 75 fourth-graders, and 95 fifth-graders who had been trained by researchers to be peer mediators participated in the study. The students completed a 21-item questionnaire on their perceptions of conflict, violence, and ways to resolve conflict. The results indicated significant gender differences on 8 of the 21 items, with more girls than boys responding that they thought there was too much violence on television (72 percent versus 44 percent), tried to talk things over when there was a conflict (93 percent versus 79 percent), and tried to find out what the problem was when there was a conflict (92 percent versus 78 percent). More boys than girls thought that using violence proved that you are tough (16 percent versus 7 percent) and tried to hit the person with whom they were having the conflict (21 percent versus 10 percent). Few significant grade-level differences were found. (A copy of the questionnaire is appended.)

(MDM)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 149

Author: GIOVANAZZI, ANNETTE M.

Year: 1994

Title: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

University: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

Adviser: JOSEPH WERLINICH

Number of Pages: 112

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAI9521406

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for the application of conflict management programs in public schools. This process involved two phases. First, an historical review of the study of social conflict, along with the nature of conflict, conflict management models, and conflict management programs in schools. The second phase focused on existing conflict management programs in four public school districts. Data was collected using interviews with key school personnel directly involved with a conflict management program in their school district. The districts were located in North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The interviews focused on the identification and description of program effectiveness. The literature revealed that conflict resolution materials first began to be incorporated into the schools in the 1960s and 1970s, with more concentrated and coordinated efforts occurring in the 1980s. With the increase in violence and conflicts in our society and our schools, more and more educators are recognizing the need for programs to teach students creative, productive, and non-violent responses to conflict. What constitutes a conflict management program may vary from district to district depending on the school environment as well as the age of the students involved in the program.

Results: Based upon the literature and the interviews with the school personnel, guidelines for the application of conflict management programs were presented in this study. Among these guidelines, four factors were deemed essential when considering program effectiveness. These were: (1) learn about conflict and conflict management models; (2) seek administrative support; (3) have a commitment to the program; and (4) design your own program based upon the needs of your school or district. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-01A, Page 0044, 00112 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 335

Author: Graves, Marilyn; Nordling, George; Roberts, Deanna; Taylor, Carol

Year: 1997

Title: Conflict Resolution through Literature.

Institution: Saint Xavier University and IRI/Skylight.

Pages: 52

Type: Masters Field-Based Action Research Project

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED412444

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Aggression; Behavior Modification; Children; Conflict Resolution; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Intervention; Literature; Peer Influence; Skill Development; Student Behavior; Transfer of Training(RJM)

Abstract: This report describes a program for decreasing student aggressive behavior when confronted with conflict. The targeted population consisted of four fourth grade classrooms in a growing middle class community. The problems of aggressive behavior were documented with classroom surveys, discipline and peer mediation referrals, records of parent contacts, and class time

lost due to inappropriate behaviors. A review of solution strategies suggested by peer mediation and authors in the field, combined with an analysis of the surveys on conflict and its setting, resulted in the selection of conflict resolution as a method of intervention. This process involved defining the characteristics of conflict, teaching the components of conflict resolution, and then using a

literature to present these strategies. Results indicated that student's perceptions of conflict changed, recognizing that conflict is an inevitable occurrence, however, they were not always able to implement the strategies when faced with a conflict. (Contains 48 references and 5 appendixes.)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 34

Author: Greenberg, Mark T.; Kusche, Carol A.; Cook, Elizabeth T.; Quamma, Julie P.

Year: 1995

Title: Promoting Emotional Competence in School-Aged Children: The Effects of the PATHS Curriculum

City: Seattle, WA

Institution: University of Washington

Type: curriculum evaluation

Keywords: emotional competence, problem solving, self-control

Abstract: Summary: This paper first provides an overview of the PATHS curriculum, a program designed to assist school-aged children with the expression, understanding, and regulation of emotions. The PATHS curriculum is based on the ABCD (affective-behavioral-cognitive-dynamic) model of development, which is also discussed at length here. The bulk of the paper is a description of a study designed to measure the impact of the PATHS emotion-focused preventive curriculum. In this study, 286 first through third graders received lessons addressing self-control, emotions, and problem solving. An assessment of the children's understanding and knowledge of emotions and feelings was obtained through interviews and discussions, both before and after their participation in the lessons.

Conclusions: The results of this study, of which a detailed, quantitative description is provided, were the following: 1) The recipients of the PATHS curriculum generally improved their ability to provide formal definitions for feelings, their ability to provide appropriate personal examples of the experience of basic feelings, their belief that they can hide, manage, and change their feelings, and their understanding of the feelings of others; 2) There were few differential effects of the PATHS curriculum on children classified at different levels of learning ability; 3) Students with a higher level of verbal intelligence were more effected by the curriculum; 4) There is a link between students with high rates of externalizing behavior problems and poorer emotional fluency and understanding; and 5) The PATHS curriculum positively influenced not only emotional fluency and understanding, but also social problem solving abilities and student behavior. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 336

Author: Gross, Judith Schefkind

Year: 1994

Title: Improving Academic Achievement and Interpersonal Relationships among Diverse 5th Graders by Strengthening

Self-Image and Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills

University: Nova Southeastern University

Number of Pages: 90

Type of Work: Ed.D. Practicum

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED380206

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Academic Achievement; Attitude Change; Change Strategies; Classroom Techniques; Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Cultural Awareness; Cultural Pluralism; Discipline Problems; Educational Strategies; Elementary School Students; Grade 5; Intermediate Grades; Language Arts; Peer Relationship; Self Concept; Self Esteem; Student Attitudes

Abstract: This practicum addressed the low self-esteem, poor academic achievement, strained interpersonal relationships, and difficulty in dealing with growing diversity noted in fifth-graders in an urban elementary school. A six-part solution strategy was developed that emphasized: (1) building realistic self-esteem; (2) increasing cultural and ethnic awareness; (3) enhancing cooperative learning; (4) teaching conflict resolution; (5) improving language arts; and (6) presenting opportunities for students to share their talents with others. These strategies were implemented over a 12-week period through various classroom activities and individualized projects. Academic achievement, discipline problems, and growth in self esteem were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of the program. It was found that student achievement scores were significantly higher for the fifth-graders exposed to the intervention than for the previous year's fifth-graders. In-school and out-of-school suspensions among fifth-graders decreased 19 percent from the previous year. Student self-esteem increased significantly over the course of

the intervention. (Three appendixes contain self-esteem questionnaires, a sample individual action plan, and a sample individual action lesson plan. Contains 17 references. (MDM)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 35

Author: Gross, Mara; Spiegler, Jinnie

Year: 1998

Title: Understanding Conflict in More Ways Than One: A Researcher-Practitioner Collaboration to Study the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP)

Journal: The Fourth R 82(March, April 1998): 7 ff

Keywords: conflict resolution, multiple schools - 15, peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 36

Author: Grossman, David C.; Neckerman, Holly J.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Liu, Ping-Yu; Asher, Kenneth N.; Beland, Kathy; Frey, Karin; Rivara, Frederick P.

Year: 1997

Title: Effectiveness of a Violence Prevention Curriculum Among Children in Elementary School

Journal: Journal of the American Medical Association 277(20)

Keywords: suburban schools, urban schools, anger management, violence prevention

Abstract: The objective of this project was to determine if a commonly used violence prevention curriculum (Second Step) leads to a reduction in aggressive behavior and an increase in prosocial behavior among elementary school students. In this randomized controlled trial, participants were six matched pairs of schools with 790 second-grade and third grade students. The students were 53% male and 79% white. Aggressive and prosocial behavior changes were measure 2 weeks and 6 months after participation in the curriculum by parent and teacher reports (Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form, the School Social Behavior Scale, and the Parent-Child Rating Scale) and by observation of a random subsample of 588 students in the classroom and playground/cafeteria settings.

Results: After adjusting for sex, age, socioeconomic status, race, academic performance, household size, and class size, change scores did not differ significantly between the intervention and control schools for any of the parent-reported or teacher- reported behavior scales. However, the behavior observations did reveal an overall decrease 2 weeks after the curriculum in physical aggression (P=.03) and an increase in neutral/prosocial behavior (P=.04) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Most effects persisted 6 months later.

Conclusions: The Second Step violence prevention curriculum appears to lead to a moderate observed decrease in physically aggressive behavior and an increase in neutral and prosocial behavior in school. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 150

Author: GUY, STEPHEN BURDETTE

Year: 1998

Title: SCHOOL-BASED PEER MEDIATION PROGRAMS: PURPOSE, PROGRESS AND PROMISE

(VIOLENCE, PUBLIC SCHOOLS)

Academic Dept.: EDD

University: UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS

Adviser: SINCLAIR, ROBERT L.

Number of Pages: 212

Type of Work: Dissertation

Accession Number: AAT 9909169

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: School violence has encouraged the introduction of peer mediation programs in spite of the absence of reliable research and program evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of peer mediation programs in 44 Massachusetts secondary public schools, describing the objectives, evidence, and conditions that fostered or hindered program success. The research questions that guided this study asked 132 respondents to indicate the objectives of peer mediation programs, evidence of success, and conditions within the schools that helped or hindered success. Of 42 objectives, only peaceful resolution of conflict was reported by a majority of the schools. Four others--learning alternative ways of dealing with violence; improving the climate in school and classroom; reducing the number of fights before becoming serious; and teaching students to talk out problems were reported by 41% of the respondents. From the seven most common examples of evidence demonstrating success, a decrease in violence and suspensions was reported by the largest percentage of respondents (38%). Major hindrances to mediation included adult intervention in mediation, lack of administrative funding, and scheduling conflicts.

Results: No single condition that either helped or hindered program success emerged in the study. The most common supportive condition was administrative and faculty support, and the most common hindrance was scheduling conflicts. Other hindrances were a lack of a full-time coordinator, and lack of administrative and faculty support. Respondents provided few examples of evidence or conditions to support their claims of success or lack of success. Results indicate that peer mediation was successful in most of the 44 schools in the study, and that every school program was unique. Still, improvements, such as effective program evaluation; greater funding; support for staff training from the state and universities; and closer scrutiny of developments in the field, are necessary. The rise in school violence throughout the nation is forcing educators to respond with programs, such as peer mediation. The blueprint for successful peer mediation programs needs to be designed by each school. Planned properly, facilitated effectively and evaluated appropriately, peer mediation can contribute to the realization of safe learning environments for students. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/10, p. 3744, Apr 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 37

Author: Hamilton, Gayle R., Ph.D.

Year: 1994

Title: Conflict Resolution in Schools as a Drug/Alcohol Use Prevention Strategy

City: Fairfax, VA

Institution: George Mason University

Pages: 76 including appendices

Date: February 1994

Type: research report

Keywords: alcohol/drug abuse, comprehensive, conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools -4, peer mediation

Abstract: From the project overview: "This 3-year initiative tested the hypotheses that conflict management programs in schools can positively impact the alcohol and other drug use of intermediate and high school students. Secondary interests in this project included the impact of conflict management programs on levels of conflict among students, school safety, teacher satisfaction with teaching, student grades, and student attendance. Children's Creative Response to Conflict (CCRC): Capital Area, Inc. provided the conflict management program (intervention) in two elementary schools for one year, one intermediate school for three years, and one secondary school for two years. The intervention schools were ... feeder schools to one another. Our hypothesis was tested by comparing the intermediate and secondary intervention schools with two intermediate and two secondary control schools. We were unable to measure the long-term effect of conflict programs from elementary to intermediate school ..and to secondary school. ... This failure was due both to the unrealistic time which we unknowingly established for instituting the program school-wide and because several of our control schools instituted conflict programs during the course of the project.

Findings: Our experience is ... that it takes about two years to obtain genuine acceptance and receptivity by the schools, at which point effect on student behavior could begin to be observed. ... Our three-year data indicate that the conflict programs were beginning to have a positive impact as the project ended. Classroom data indicate that one session per week of a conflict management program held over a semester frequently increases grades, attendance, and percentage of homework turned in. These session also increase teacher bonding to, and enjoyment of, the class. The student Survey of AOD Use Attitudes developed for this project showed that students were answering thoughtfully and that the instrument is extremely reliable. Data do not indicate significant change in, or significant differences in changes between, intervention and control schools, for the reasons cited above." Author

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 38

Author: Hanson, Marjorie K

Year: 1994

Title: A Conflict Resolution/Student Mediation Program: Effects on Student Attitudes and Behaviors

Journal: ERS Spectrum 12(4): 9-14

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 39

Author: Hanson, Marjorie K.

Year: 1996

Title: Evaluation of Project PROUD (Peacefully Resolving Our Unsettled Differences) Final Report. 1992-93 Through 1994-95

City: Miami, FL

Institution: Dade County Public Schools' Office of Educational Accountability

Date: March 1996

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: conflict resolution, county-wide, mediation

Abstract: This report describes the implementation of Project PROUD (Peacefully Resolving Our Unsettled Differences) through 1994-95 and evaluates the impact of various aspects of the project. The project was a districtwide initiative established in 1992. Project PROUD provides instruction and training on conflict resolution techniques for teachers, students, and parents, and establishes teams of student mediators to resolve conflicts among their peers. The evaluation was requested by the Assistant Superintendent, Office of Multicultural Programs/Alternative Education in December 1992.

Methodology: The tools used to measure the effectiveness of this project included staff surveys, records of student mediation, a Student Case Management System, surveys of selected students, and parent workshop evaluation forms.

Selected Findings: The study produced the following results:

o 80 percent of conflicts addressed by the peer mediators were classified as resolved at the end of mediation;

o In some grades, there was a noticeable decrease in the number of recorded incidents involving conflict;

o Teachers and administrators did not notice a school wide improvement in response to conflict

o 75 percent of student's attitudes were positively impacted by conflict resolution training;

o There was an extremely high rate of satisfaction among parents receiving conflict resolution training, and one third reported positive changes in interaction with their children.

Recommendations: Based on the results of this study, it was recommended that Project PROUD continue to be implemented and that the following district support be provided:

1) Conflict resolution training for all elementary classroom teachers, and all students in the district;

2) Annual workshops aimed at refreshing the training and procedures for student mediation;

3) Expansion of parent training program so that it is offered at all schools in the district. MS/MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 40

Author: Harder & Kibbe Research

Year: 1994

Title: The Community Board Program: Assessment of Opportunities for Conflict Resolution Services to Meet the Interests and Needs of Educators Nationwide

City: San Francisco, CA

Institution: The Community Board Program

Date: July 1994

Type: analysis, survey report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, mediation

Abstract: This evaluation assesses the conflict resolution-related interests, experiences, and needs in the educational arena of previous clients and potentially new clients of the Community Board Program.

Methodology: Two methods of collecting data were utilized. The first was an in-depth telephone survey of 25 educators that was designed to understand the interests and capacities of schools to engage in Community Boards' conflict resolution and peer conflict management activities. The second was a brief postcard survey (with responses from 223 of 3,017 clients or potential clients from across the United States) asking educators and administrators about their interest in, use of and funding availability for a variety of conflict resolution services.

Findings: Key findings of general interest from the telephone survey were as follows:

o Word of mouth is the most common way people get information about conflict resolution services.

o Two thirds of the respondents report that Community Boards' curricula was the biggest factor in selecting their training services. While similar training services were reported to be available locally..., many preferred to go directly the source for training expertise.

o The primary motivation for seeking conflict resolution services was to enhance students' understanding of conflict and to build better communication and listening skills. ...particularly... because of increased weapons and violence on campus, escalating racial tensions, and an influx of gang activities.

o The primary unexpected benefit from utilizing conflict resolution services was improved public relations for their school/district, particularly since violence has become such a "hot" topic.

o The most commonly identified obstacle to increased utilization of conflict resolution services is dwindling availability of resources.

o Educators prefer trainings to be located on site.

Key findings of general interest from postcard surveys:

o 91% of respondents indicted they had interest in some type of conflict resolution service, while only 37.7% indicated that their school or district already had some type of services and 20..2% said that they had the budget for these services.

o Educators were interested in a variety of conflict resolution services.

o The most common service that schools and districts already have (34%) and have a budget for (12.1%) is the basic peer mediation training.

o Educators receive funding from a variety of sources, most common is state funding. Almost 46% receive federal funding, most commonly Drug Free Schools funding. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 41

Author: Harder+Company Community Research

Year: 1997

Title: Whole Schools Conflict Resolution Project

City: San Francisco

Institution: San Francisco Peer Resources, Community Board Program

Pages: 48 + Appendices

Date: August 1997

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: whole school, peer mediation, parents, staff, conflict resolution curriculum, conflict resolution program for adults

Abstract: From the executive summary: "A key purpose of this evaluation was to examine the WSCRP (Whole School Conflict Resolution Program) approach, first in theory, by reviewing the literature on peer mediation and conflict resolution, then in practice. The evaluation sought to assess what impacts the Model had in terms of school safety and culture as reported by students, faculty and administration of each school. It also sought to assess the keys and challenges to successful program implementation as experienced by program staff and school faculty. Methods used...included key informant interviews with administrators and staff, focus groups with students and faculty, student surveys, and a literature review."

Among other findings with less than full implementation at time of evaluation: administrative and faculty support and commitment to carrying out the Project were key factors associated with the successful implementation of the WSCRP; the primary challenges to implementation were limitations on staff time and program resources. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 42

Author: Harrington, Charles C., Ph.D.

Year of Conference: 1994

Title: Conflict Resolution in the Schools: Research Agenda for the Next Decade

Conference Location: New York City

Publisher: International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution, National Association for Mediations in Education, Urban Center for Peace Research, Implementation, Development and Education

Pages: 57

Date: October 1994

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Abstract: This report is a chronological ethnographic account of the conference jointly sponsored by the ICCCR, NAME, and UCPRIDE. The conference was held October 21-22 at Teacher's College Columbia. Purpose of conference was to bring "distinguished leaders in the field of conflict resolution and violence prevention" to engage in a "dialogue between researchers, practitioners and school systems" about "conflict Resolution in the Schools: Research Agenda for the Next Decade." MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 241

Author: Harris, Ian M.

Title: Teachers' Response to Conflict in Selected Milwaukee Schools.

Editor: Lofgren, Horst

Book Title: Peace Education and Human Development

Publisher: Department of Educational and Psychological Research, Malmo School of Education - Lund University

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 337

Author: Harris, Ian M

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Peace Education: A Modern Educational Reform

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Atlanta, GA

Pages: 36

Date: April 12-16, 1993

Call Number: ERIC Identifier: ED362458

Keywords: Descriptors: Conflict Resolution; Course Content; Curriculum Enrichment; Educational Change; Elementary Secondary

Education; Peace; Problem Solving; Violence; War

Identifiers: Peace Education

Abstract: Peace education as an educational reform originally responded to international threats of violence and wars. Since the end of the Cold War, peace education has directed its efforts to many different aspects of violence that plague both teachers and students. This paper reports on the efforts of one school district in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to respond to escalating violence in students' lives by teaching peace education. Peer mediation, courses on nonviolence, environmental awareness, curricula based on teaching respect, anger management, and violence prevention have been initiated to help students deal with the problems of violence in their lives. Two endnotes are included and 39 references are attached. (Author)

Notes: ERIC

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/ED362458.htm

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 338

Author: Harris, Ian M.; Rank, Carol; Fisk, Larry J.

Year: 1997

Title: Peace Studies in the West. Peace Education Reports No. 16.

Pages: 48

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED421394

ISSN-1101-6426

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Area Studies; Conflict Resolution; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Human Relations; Peace; Prosocial Behavior; Violence; World Affairs

.IDENTIFIERS: Peace Studies

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Peace studies explores organized non-violence and violence; their relationships to society, behavior, and consciousness; and ways of working toward a just and harmonious world community. Noting a fairly rapid growth in peace studies courses on college and university campuses during the last half of the 20th century, this report provides a description of the form, special structures, and programs of peace studies in colleges and universities in Western Europe and North America. The document describes a rich array of peace studies programs and course offerings, especially those that focus on conflict resolution. These programs rely heavily on voluntary efforts by dedicated individuals and have had too little, long term, institutional funding. A 48-item reference list concludes the report. (EH)

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: Department of Educational and Psychological Research, School of Education Malmo, Lund University, Box 23501, S-200 45 Malmo, Sweden.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 151

Author: HARRIS, PEGGY ALINE

Year: 1998

Title: TEACHING CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS TO CHILDREN: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A CURRICULUM BASED AND A MODIFIED PEER MEDIATION PROGRAM

University: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

Adviser: HOHN, ROBERT L.

Number of Pages: 146

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9905455

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two approaches to conflict resolution instruction on the knowledge and behavior of elementary school children. One approach, the modified peer mediation program, employed a class meeting procedure for addressing student conflicts. The second approach, the curriculum based program, utilized the Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum. Two fourth grade classes and one third grade class were randomly assigned to treatment groups. A remaining third grade class served as the control group and received no treatment. Classroom teachers led

instructional sessions in conflict resolution strategies for the course of a semester. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on Matson's Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY), Teacher and Student versions and 'How I Solve Problems' test. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze scores on the Conflict Report Forms, Self Report. A Chi Square analysis was conducted on the number of office referrals. The playground observation provided a naturalistic component to the study and results were described nonstatisticaily. Initial examination of the results indicated grade level differences. For this reason, results were analyzed separately along grade levels.

Results: The results of the MESSY, Teacher Version, indicated teacher perception of growth was significantly greater for the curricular group of third graders and the class meeting group of fourth graders. The results of the MESSY, Student Version, indicated a treatment by gender interaction. The third grade boys in the class meeting group scored significantly better than the girls in the same group, and the third grade girls in the curriculum group scored significantly better than the boys in the same group. None of the other analyses indicated significant differences between the groups. This study represented the first attempt to compare conflict resolution programs for elementary school children. The results suggest that a combination program, which relies primarily on teacher directed lessons for younger children with increased student responsibilities for children over third grade, may provide the type of eclectic approach necessary to benefit all children. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/09, p. 3397, Mar 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 242

Author: Harris, Ian M.; Glowinski, Jessica; Perleberg, Nancy

Year: 1998

Title: Why Do Teachers Practice Peace Education

Academic Dept.: Peace Studies Program

City: Milwaukee, WI

University: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Number of Pages: 8

Type of Work: Unpublished academic paper

 

Reference Type: Generic

Record Number: 243

Author: Harris, Ian M.

Year: 1999

Title: Peace Research Instruments

Place Published: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Type of Work: Peace Research Instruments

Abstract: Three instruments used in connection with peace education program in schools: Do Students Demonstrate Peaceful Skills? Are Teachers Teaching Peace Education Content? Criteria for Judging the Peacefulness of Teacher's Style

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 152

Author: HART, JULIANNE PUTNAM

Year: 1994

Title: THE IMPACT OF A PEER MEDIATION PROGRAM ON AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

University: UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

Director: RICHARD WILLIAMS

Number of Pages: 157

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9505896

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: A growing preoccupation of the nation's educational community involves violence in schools. Such violence causes disruption of the educational process, fear and absenteeism among students, staff burnout, and urban flight. One response to this problem has been Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Programs. This two year study analyzes the impact of a Peer Mediation Program on an elementary school's teaching/learning environment. A non-equivalent control group design with two closely matched urban elementary schools totaling one thousand students is used.

Results: Results indicate positive changes in student's expectations of cooperative problem solving, support of significant others for problem-solving, and perceptions of school safety. Teacher's results on the same variables were not significant. Rates of win/win outcomes of student conflict increased significantly on teacher observations and primary interveners in conflict changed from an adult dominance to greater student involvement. The incidence of student conflicts declined significantly at the treatment school as did the amount of time taken off from teaching for teachers to deal with student conflicts. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-11A, Page 3469, 00157 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 153

Author: HASHIMOTO, YUKO

Year: 1996

Title: EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHERS' BELIEFS AND PRACTICES RELATED TO PROMOTING CHILDREN'S CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOMS: A STUDY OF TWO TEACHERS (KINDERGARTEN, FIRST-GRADE, MISSOURI, PUBLIC SCHOOL)

University: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN IOWA

Adviser: RHETA DEVRIES

Number of Pages: 153

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9633449

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: The study involved six weeks of classroom observations and in-depth interviews with two teachers, kindergarten and first grade, who are currently engaging in an on-going process of implementing constructivist education in a public school in Missouri and whose teaching practices are considered to be exemplary. The purpose of the study was twofold: (a) to describe and analyze the teachers' practical approaches in promoting children's conflict resolution in the classrooms and (b) to examine how the teachers' beliefs and practices related to conflict resolution reflect the theoretical framework of the constructivist program.

Results: The results of the data collection were analyzed and presented according to the following four aspects:

(a) characteristics of teacher-initiated and solicited interventions in children's conflict situations, (b) characteristics of teachers' mediations, (c) teachers' beliefs about promoting children's conflict resolution in the classroom, and (d) teachers' approaches to creating a classroom environment for promoting children's conflict resolution. The study found that the teachers initiated interventions only under certain conditions. In their responses to children's solicitations for intervention, the teachers effectively promoted the children's abilities to solve their conflicts by themselves. The study also identified the constructivist teachers' characteristics that were guided by underlying aims of mediating children's conflicts: to teach children practical strategies to manage conflicts, to foster positive attitudes toward solving interpersonal conflicts in children, and to promote the development of children's interpersonal understanding. The teachers' beliefs about promoting children's conflict resolution were consistent with the theoretical approach of constructivist education and were reflected in their classroom practices: The teachers integrated conflict resolution as an essential part of the curriculum and fostered the children's abilities to manage conflicts through various experiences in the classroom. The study also identified and analyzed the teachers' efforts to create a classroom environment that were closely tied to promoting children's conflict resolution according to three features: (a) providing and using the peace chairs, (b) involving children in making classroom decisions and rules, and (c) establishing a community in which the children and the teacher build close connections by sharing experiences and, at the same time, freely exchange their points of view and respect different ideas. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-06A, Page 2352, 00153 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 154

Author: HAUGEN, VALERIE ROSE

Year: 1997

Title: THE SOCIALIZATION OF ADOLESCENT YOUTH IN CONFLICT: CROSSING TEXTS, CROSSING CONTEXTS, CROSSING THE LINE

University: UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS

Director: DAVID R. EVANS

Number of Pages: 269

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9737533

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: ANTHROPOLOGY, CULTURAL; SOCIOLOGY, ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

Abstract: The study takes a grounded theoretical approach to the study of conflicted communication among adolescent youth in an inner city middle school. Ethnographic field methods were utilized over an eighteen-month period in an inner city middle school and the surrounding neighborhoods. Conflicted communication is concerned with the use of patterned forms and content of conflict behaviors to both maintain and transform the youths' social world. It arises out of the social construction of adolescence, the institutional and community settings and familial practices. Three questions are posed: What are the patterned forms and content of adolescent conflicted communication? How does the school, community, and family make an impact on conflicted communication? What does the enactment of conflicted communication reveal about the social world of adolescent youth? Audiotapes of mediation sessions between youth, interviews with youth, school personnel, community members and families, as well as field notes comprise the primary data sources. Analyses of these data necessarily cross traditional boundaries to explore these research questions. Descriptive analyses reveal the presence of overarching patterned processes and particular repeated content in conflict situations. An interpretive analysis of 'face,' an often-mentioned symbolic theme, reveals the importance of taking the symbolic dimension into account in order to understand the hidden values inherent in conflicted communication practices. Lastly, a critical analysis examines the interplay between conflicted communication practices and the influence of the inner city institution and neighborhoods on such practices. Framing these three analyses is a meta-theoretical proposition regarding the social world of adolescent youth which suggests that adolescent youth engage in conflicted communication because it provides the means to re-organize social groupings, to experiment with displays and exercise of power, and to test the strength of socio-familial alliances.

Results: The study concludes with the suggestion that conflict resolution/mediation programs in schools consider the socio-cultural dimensions and functions of conflict in the lives of adolescents. Rather than striving to eliminate institutional conflict, school personnel need to encourage critical reflection about conflicted communication and help youth identify junctures within conflict situations where less destructive actions might be chosen. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 2271, 00269 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 244

Author: Hawkins, J. D.; Von Cleve, E.; Catalano, R. F.

Title: Reducing early childhood aggression: results of a primary prevention program.

Journal: American Academy of Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry 30: 208-17.

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 245

Author: Hawkins, J. D.; Doucek, H.; Lishner, D.

Year: 1988

Title: Changing Teaching Practices in Mainstream Classrooms to Improve Bonding and Behavior of Low Achievers

Journal: American Research Journal 25(1): 31-50

Notes: Reference from D. Crawford

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 246

Author: Hawkins, J. Dd.; Catalano, R. F.; Morrison, D. M.; O'Donnel, J.; Abbott, R. D.; Day, L. E.

Year: 1992

Title: The Seattle Social development project: effects of the first four years on protective factors and problem behaviors

Editor: McCord, J.; Tremblay, R.

Book Title: The prevention of anti-social behavior in children

City: New York, NY

Publisher: Guilford Press

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 155

Author: HEATLEY, ALVIN TAFT

Year: 1997

Title: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF CONFLICT FOLLOWING CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING (PEER MEDIATION

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9803717

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION

Abstract: The number of violent incidents that occur in schools in the United States increased over the past few years. Schools and school districts have attempted to decrease the number of incidents while providing students with an option in handling conflict through training in conflict resolution. The purpose of this study was to determine if conflict resolution training affected students' perceptions of conflict. Additionally, this study sought to determine if age, gender, or race were predictive of changes in students' perceptions of conflict. Survey results before and after conflict resolution training comprised the quantitative data for the study. The data collection procedure included the results from a structured interview. Subjects for the study included 391 elementary, middle, and high school students from a northeast Ohio school district.

Findings: Two findings emerged from the study: (a) There was a positive difference in students' perceptions of conflict following conflict resolution training; and (b) there was not a significant relationship between changes in students' perceptions of conflict and age, gender, and race. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-08A, Page 3009, 00125 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 247

Author: Hechinger, F.

Year: 1994

Title: Saving Youth From Violence

Journal: Carnegie Quarterly 39(1): 7-

Abstract: "Research in this field indicates that conflict resolution and mediation programs show positive effects in reducing violence." Quoted (page 67) in Crawford, Donna and Richard Bodine Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings - Program Report, 1996. See above.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 248

Author: Heinecken, Dawn; Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

Year: 1999

Title: Conflict Management and University Teaching Assistants: An Action Research Approach

Journal: Martin Journal of Conflict Resolution 2

Abstract: "Our paper describes an action research approach undertaken by graduate students to effect a policy change at a Midwestern university. The first part of the paper is a narrative analysis that revealed the types of conflicts that teaching assistants at our university were encountering in their classrooms. The second part of the paper documents actions taken by members of the Graduate Student Senate (GSS), and others at the institution, to establish a program for conflict management at the university that could lead to the establishment of safe places for anyone at the university to learn conflict management. " Authors

URL: http://www.martin.uidaho.edu/publications/MJCR/mjcr2.htm

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 339

Author: Heller, Gary S.

Year: 1996

Title: Changing the School to Reduce Student Violence: What Works?

Journal: Journal Citation: NASSP Bulletin 80(579): 1-10

Call Number: ERIC Identifier: EJ522758

ISSN: 0192-6365

Keywords: Descriptors: Citizenship Education; Community Involvement; Cooperation; Democratic Values; Discipline Policy; High

Schools; Institutional Characteristics; Predictor Variables; Prevention; Principals; School Effectiveness; School Safety;

Suburban Schools; Violence

Identifiers: New York [Central Valley]; Peer Mediation

Abstract: Well-disciplined schools make appropriate school discipline a part of every curriculum, program, and practice. Key

organizational variables include staff and community involvement, sensitivity to students' racial and socioeconomic concerns, and effective intervention strategies, such as the anger-management seminars, awareness discussion groups, mentoring arrangements, and peer-mediation programs at one upstate New York high school. (MLH)

Notes: ERIC; Available from: UMI

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/EJ522758.htm

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 249

Author: Hessler, Richard M.; Hollis, Steve; Crowe, Cherie

Year: 1998

Title: Peer Mediation: A Qualitative Study of Youthful Frames of Power and Influence

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 15(3): 187-198

Abstract: "This qualitative study investigated the children's perceptions of conflict, violence, pathways to peer mediation, the efficacy of mediation, the role of mediators, and their core values. Goffman's Frame Analysis was used to explain the process by which the children placed their unique stamp on what appeared to be an adult model of conflict resolution. " From the Author's abstract.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 250

Author: Heydenberk, Warren and Roberta

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Project Peace - Philadelphia

Conference Name: National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution

Conference Location: Pittsburgh, PA

Abstract: Session Description: "The presenters will describe a two-year study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a conflict resolution program in an urban elementary school. Attention will be given to conflict resolution strategies which proved to be effective: affective vocabulary development, class team building, and increasing school attachment, in addition to basic conflict resolution skills." Authors.

Notes: For information contact authors at Box 385, Richlandtown, PA 18955; email: heydenberk@lehigh.edu

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 251

Author: Heydenberk, Warren and Roberta

Year: 2000 In Press

Title: A Powerful Peace: The Integrative Thinking Curriculum

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 43

Author: Hogan, Leo

Year: 1993

Title: A Delphi Study of Effective Characteristics of Conflict Mediation/Resolution Training Programs for Students in Washington Schools

University: Seattle University

Type of Work: Dissertation

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Abstract: The study looked at the magnitude of implementation of conflict mediation/resolution (cm/r) programs in Washington State schools and identified successful practices in cm/r training. The research questions used: (1) What are the most effective components of programs designed to teach students cm/r skills in schools? (2) What are the most effective methods for implementing cm/r programs in schools? (3) Who should be the coordinator(s) of a cm/r program and why? (4) Which community agencies or college programs are best suited to assist schools in establishing cm/r programs? (5) At what grade level are cm/r programs likely to be most successful and why? (6) What are the best resources available to school leaders interested in beginning cm/r programs? (7) What should school leaders be wary of in implementing a cm/r program? (8) Do cm/r programs merit continuation in the schools? Why? Why not?

Methodology: A Delphi method was used to gain a consensus regarding the use and usefulness of conflict mediation/resolution programs in the Washington public schools. A series of four questionnaires developed by building the second, third, and fourth from the answers of the previous questionnaire was used with 25 teachers. These teachers where were implementing cm/r programs in their respective schools with populations of 2000+ each. Findings are based upon the questionnaire responses of the 25 participating teachers. They are based upon a consensus or percentage of agreement, and are subjective in nature.

Findings: Some of the agreements included: successful training in conflict resolution was seen as early as third grade; conflict resolution training in elementary grades increases the effectiveness of dispute resolution skills in middle school years; selection of programs and outside consultants should match school resources and needs; administrators and parents should be involved in the programs; and, implementing these programs takes teaching and administrative time, but the corollary reported was that it minimizes time spent in dispute resolution. Policy recommendations made in the study were (1) provide for effective assessment of the need and type of program before investing in and implementing conflict mediation training into the school; (2) Incorporate the concepts of cm/r into the curriculum and as a cornerstone of discipline policy; and, (3) increase sharing by mediation trainers of effective techniques to create successful conflict mediation programs and to better understand the challenges of program implementation. Carolyne Ashton

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 156

Author: HOGAN, LEO F.

Year: 1993

Title: A DELPHI STUDY OF EFFECTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONFLICT MEDIATION/RESOLUTION TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS IN WASHINGTON SCHOOLS (PUBLIC SCHOOLS, STUDENT MEDIATION TRAINING)

University: SEATTLE UNIVERSITY

Supervisor: JOHN J. GARDINER

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9325838

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GENERAL; conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Abstract: The study looked at the magnitude of implementation of conflict mediation/resolution (cm/r) programs in Washington State schools and identified successful practices in cm/r training. The research questions used: (1) What are the most effective components of programs designed to teach students cm/r skills in schools? (2) What are the most effective methods for implementing cm/r programs in schools? (3) Who should be the coordinator(s) of a cm/r program and why? (4) Which community agencies or college programs are best suited to assist schools in establishing cm/r programs? (5) At what grade level are cm/r programs likely to be most successful and why? (6) What are the best resources available to school leaders interested in beginning cm/r programs? (7) What should school leaders be wary of in implementing a cm/r program? (8) Do cm/r programs merit continuation in the schools? Why? Why not?

Methodology: A Delphi method was used to gain a consensus regarding the use and usefulness of conflict mediation/resolution programs in the Washington public schools. A series of four questionnaires developed by building the second, third, and fourth from the answers of the previous questionnaire was used with 25 teachers. These teachers where were implementing cm/r programs in their respective schools with populations of 2000+ each. Findings are based upon the questionnaire responses of the 25 participating teachers. They are based upon a consensus or percentage of agreement, and are subjective in nature.

Findings: Some of the agreements included: successful training in conflict resolution was seen as early as third grade; conflict resolution training in elementary grades increases the effectiveness of dispute resolution skills in middle school years; selection of programs and outside consultants should match school resources and needs; administrators and parents should be involved in the programs; and, implementing these programs takes teaching and administrative time, but the corollary reported was that it minimizes time spent in dispute resolution. Policy recommendations made in the study were (1) provide for effective assessment of the need and type of program before investing in and implementing conflict mediation training into the school; (2) Incorporate the concepts of cm/r into the curriculum and as a cornerstone of discipline policy; and, (3) increase sharing by mediation trainers of effective techniques to create successful conflict mediation programs and to better understand the challenges of program implementation. Carolyne Ashton

Notes: DAI, VOL. 54-04A, Page 1171, 00212 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 252

Author: Horowitz, Sandra V.; Boardman, Susan K.; Redlener, Irwin

Year: 1994

Title: Constructive Conflict Management and Coping in Homeless Children and Adolescents

Journal: Journal of Social Issues 50(1): 85-98

Abstract: "In this largely exploratory study of the conflict management and coping behavior of homeless adolescents, the authors interviewed 176 families (mother-adolescent dyads) living in New York City welfare hotels. Results indicated that peer conflict was the "worst" problem of the previous month as reported by approximately 50% of these youth. Homeless adolescents demonstrated conflict management and coping patterns that differed in certain respects from adolescent patterns previously described in the literature. The implications of these differences as well as direction for future research are discussed." Authors synopsis, p. 85

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 340

Author: Horowitz, Sandra V.; Boardman, Susan K.

Year: 1995

Title: The Role of Mediation and Conflict Resolution in Creating Safe Learning Environments

Journal: Thresholds in Education 21(2): 43-50

Call Number: ISSN: 0196-9541

ERIC Identifier: EJ513320

Keywords: Descriptors: Conflict Resolution; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Program Evaluation;

Research Needs; School Safety; Social Problems

Identifiers: Peace Education; Peer Mediation

Abstract: The need for solutions to youth violence has engendered inappropriate uses of conflict-resolution and

peer-mediation programs. A research review indicates that reducing aggression and violence requires schoolwide change in

conflict attitudes and behavior and concurrent, intensive programs targeting specific problems of particularly aggressive children.

(31 references) (MLH)

Notes: ERIC; This document is NOT available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/EJ513320.htm

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 157

Author: HOWARD, EMMA JEAN

Year: 1996

Title: VIOLENCE PREVENTION CURRICULUM FOR SCHOOLS: A DESCRIPTIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM MATERIALS (CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ANGER MANAGEMENT)

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA

Chairperson: PATRICIA A. BAUCH

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9735715

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; PSYCHOLOGY, GENERAL; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine primary and secondary violence prevention program materials for youth within a school setting. This research was designed to provide a framework to assist school personnel in examining violence prevention programs and in selecting appropriate materials for a specific school setting. An extensive review of the literature on youth violence and prevention interventions was completed. From this review of the literature, instructional topics (i.e., anger management, conflict theory, prosocial skills, and social skills development) and pedagogical components (i.e., brainstorming, class discussion, modeling, role play, and lecture) used in violence prevention program materials were identified. A matrix of instructional topics and pedagogical components was developed for use in content analysis of selected materials. Eleven instructional topics and 21 pedagogical components were identified for use in the matrix. Eleven violence prevention curriculums were selected for analysis. The instructional topics and pedagogical components from each curriculum were identified and compared to the matrix developed from the review of the literature.

Results of the content analyses indicated that the instructional topics identified in the selected curriculums were consistent with the instructional topics identified from an examination of the research. Results further indicated that there was variation among the curriculums regarding (a) the number of instructional topics used in each curriculum and (b) the specific instructional topics addressed in each curriculum. However, the analyses also indicated that each individual curriculum was consistent in the stated purposes or goals of the curriculum and the instructional topics it addressed. Finally, results indicated that while there was some diversity among curriculums with regard to pedagogical components, there was a greater amount of consistency between the pedagogical components used in the curriculums than the instructional topics addressed in each one.

Conclusions: It was concluded that the specificity of violence prevention curriculums made it critical for school personnel to carefully examine violence prevention materials and to select materials that most appropriately matched the specific needs and goals of the school. The matrix used for the content analyses in this study provides a framework for the examination of violence prevention materials. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 2052, 00283 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 44

Author: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution

Year: 1994

Title: Survey of Conflict Resolution Programs and Attitudes in Virginia's Schools

City: Fairfax, VA

Institution: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University

Date: June 1994

Type: survey report

Keywords: conflict resolution attitudes, statewide

Abstract: Purpose: To provide an overview of what programs that addressed conflict and violence already exist in the state; to predict the development of future programs in Virginia.

Methodology: Two surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Virginia State Department of Education that solicited descriptive information from all 135 district superintendents of schools and half of the public school principals (875 randomly selected) across the state about these three things:

(1) Programs and strategies operating or developing to address conflicts (2) Factors influencing the development of these programs , and (3) Perceptions about community trends and predictive factors which might cause conflict in the future. The voluntary surveys were completed by 38 school districts and 185 individual schools that represented a diversified sampling according to geography, level, size, location, and racial composition.

Findings:

o Traditional conflict management strategies such as suspension, codes of conduct, anti-drug and alcohol campaigns, programs to increase self-esteem, testing and tutoring, etc. continue in wide use (80% of schools) but new approaches such as mediation/dispute resolution for conflicts involving students, faculty, administrators and parents, multicultural education, recreational programs at night or after school, etc.) are emerging in addition to other approaches (50%-80%). Suburban schools (72%) were more likely than rural schools to use dispute resolution and to use conflict resolution curricula.

o The racial or ethnic diversity of the school seems to effect the programs selected: Schools with 50%-90% racial or ethnic dominance employ mediation more often (48%) than schools with very high or low diversity (33%). Urban schools with significant racial diversity reported a higher use (94%) of multicultural education than rural schools (78%) with low diversity.

o Internal interest (as opposed to interest outside the school or district or availability of resources or crisis) was the primary factor influencing the use or non-use of particular programs in a school or district.

o Issues generally seen as problems in wider society (drugs, weapons, and crime) were seen as predictors of student or student-group conflicts in schools. Inadequate facilities, economic decline/unemployment, low student expectations, rising political action outside the school and increasing self-segregation of student in public settings such as the cafeteria were also seen as warning signs.

Recommendations: Based on analysis of these surveys, ICAR recommends that:

1) Conflict resolution skills be seen as more than a fad or a quick fix;

2) Conflict resolution programs be actively inclusive of community groups, students and parents;

3) Sources of conflict coming from the local community and wider society be examined;

4) Resources for developing conflict resolution programs be utilized;

5) Conflict resolution and diversity curricula be integrated into the educational process; and

6) A systematized approach to dispute resolution and mediation skills be developed within the school. MB

Notes: +Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 703-993-1300.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 253

Author: Iowa Peace Institute

Year: 1992

Title: Fostering Peace: A Comparison of Conflict Resolution Approaches for Students (K-12)

City: Grinnell, IA

Institution: Iowa Peace Institute

Pages: 22

Date: April 1992

Abstract: Approaches summarized in this compilation are: The Community Board Program, Inc.; Children's Creative Response to conflict Program (CCRC); David and Roger Johnson: Students as Peacemakers Program; Educators for Social Responsibility (ESR); Peace Works: The Grace Contrino Abrams Peace Education Foundation; Talk it Out: A Conflict Resolution Program for the Elementary Classroom Teacher; Edward de Bono: Six Thinking Hats for Schools; Aiki Works Inc.: The Magic of Conflict Workshop for Young People; Terrence Webster-Doyle: The Peace Education Series. Introduction by Noa Zanolli Davenport, Director of Education, Iowa Peace Institute.

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 45

Author: Isenberg, Joan P. ; Raines, Shirley C.

Year: 1991

Title: Peer Conflict and Conflict Resolution Among Pre-school Children

Editor: Bowen, Larry S. ; Gittler, Joseph B.

Book Title: The Annual Review of Conflict Knowledge and Conflict Resolution

City: New York

Publisher: Garland Publishing Inc.

Volume: 3

Keywords: conflict resolution, peer conflict

Abstract: The motivation for this article is the idea that understanding the role of conflict in children's development is crucial since more children are entering organized group environments at earlier ages. This article has as its thesis that peer conflict and its resolution are positive forces in developing preschool children's social understandings. Children's constructions of social understandings have an important relationship to their cognitive and moral understandings. This chapter defines conflict and reviews key concepts from the interactionist (constructivist) and from the socio-cultural theory perspectives as well as examines research studies which guide the discussion of conflict as a significant influence on children's growing understandings of their social world. Research findings that identify the issues, causes, dynamics, and outcomes within preschool children's conflicts are presented. Finally, the implications for early childhood professionals and recommendations for further research in the study of conflict among preschool children are discussed. (p. 22) MB

Notes: +

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Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 341

Author: Jacobson, Michael G.; Lombard, Robert H.

Year: 1992

Title: Effective School Climate: Roles for Peers, Practitioners, and Principals

Journal: Rural Research Report 3(4): 8

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED357903

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Interpersonal

Competence; Peer Counseling; Positive Reinforcement; Problem Solving; Program Descriptions; Role of Education; Rural

Areas; Rural Education; School Effectiveness; Student Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Illinois; Mediation

Abstract: Current research on school effectiveness concludes that differences among schools affect students' academic achievement. An important characteristic of effective schools is providing a safe and secure environment. An example of programs that address this issue are peer mediation or conflict resolution programs. These programs require the combined efforts and training of administration, teachers, students, and parents in providing a safe and secure learning environment. Research demonstrates that these programs positively affect mediators' attitudes toward conflicts and have a positive impact on student mediators' self-image, problem-solving skills, sensitivity to others, and leadership skills. In addition, these programs have a positive influence on the general school climate, the number of fights and violent incidents, teachers' attitudes toward conflict, and the amount of instructional time in the classroom. Five elements usually found in school mediation programs are: (1) say what happened and how you feel without blaming; (2) listen to the other person; (3) say what you want from the other person; (4) think together about possible solutions; and (5) mutually agree to a solution. Two case studies describe the positive results of school mediation programs and illustrate the use of rewards to promote good student behavior. (LP)

INSTITUTION_NAME: Western Illinois Univ., Macomb. Illinois Inst. for Rural Affairs

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 46

Author: Jenkins, Jeffrey; Smith, Melinda

Year: 1987

Title: Mediation in the Schools 1986-87 Program Evaluation

City: Albuquerque, NM

Institution: University of New Mexico

New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution

Pages: 24

Date: August 1987

Type: program evaluation

Keywords: multiple schools, peer mediation, statewide

Abstract: The Mediation in the Schools Program (MISP) is a statewide educational program which was implemented in 1986-87 under the joint sponsorship of the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution and the Albuquerque Mediation Center. Eight school districts participated, in addition to one BIA Indian School and one juvenile correctional facility; schools included a total of 17 elementary schools, five middle/junior high schools and one high school. The evaluation had two major goals: to delineate and assess areas of student impact, and the development of instruments to measure those outcomes. Assessment instruments developed were the Student Attitudes about Conflict Scale (SAAC); the Student Observation Form; the Teacher Attitude Scale. Four subscales of the SAAC were identified as students' attachment and/or commitment to their school activities, environment or teacher; students' self-concept and their relationships to their peers; students' attitudes and approaches to conflict and problem solving; and students' perceptions of their social skills and social relations abilities.

Results: The overall results of the student survey (SAAC) and the teacher observations of student behavior suggest that the program had a positive effect on the student mediators in the areas of problem solving and conflict resolution skills, self-concept and commitment to school. At the elementary level, the results of SAAC indicate that student mediators are acquiring problem solving and conflict resolution skills to a greater extent than other student who are not exposed to the MISP. At the middle school level, the SAAC survey indicated that there was a significant difference overall between the student mediation and control groups. Middle school students who were not trained as mediators declined in each of the areas measured by the SAAC, where as the students trained by the program showed improvement in each area. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 47

Author: Jenkins, Jeffrey ; Smith, Melinda

Year: 1995

Title: School Mediation Evaluation Materials

City: Albuquerque, NM

Publisher: New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution

Keywords: peer mediation, statewide

Abstract: This contains the report of a comprehensive evaluation of the statewide evaluation of the mediation in the schools program of the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution conducted in 1986-87. The second section is a refined evaluation plan based on the experience of the initial evaluation using evaluation instruments tested for reliability and validity. The instruments included are the Revised Student Attitudes about Conflict (SAAC), SAAC Subscales, Conflict Opinion Scale for Teachers (COST), COST Subscales, and Student Observation Form (SOF). MB

Notes: +New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution, 620 Roma NW, Suite B, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102

 

Reference Type: Edited Book

Record Number: 254

Editor: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

Year: 1983

Title: The Socialization and Achievement crisis: Are Cooperative Learning Experiences the Solution?

Series Editor: Bickman, L.

Series Title: Applied Social Psychology Annual 4

City: Beverly Hills, CA

Publisher: Sage Publications, 1983

Edition: August 1983

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 158

Author: JOHNSON, KAREN KUHNE

Year: 1988

Title: THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR AND SELF-ESTEEM OF MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

University: UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON

ADVISER: Chairperson: MARY W. ARMSWORTH

Number of Pages: 180

Type of Work: Dissertation 1988

Accession Number: AAG8908546

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract: This study compared a sixth grade middle school sample which received Conflict Management Training with two sixth grade middle school samples which received no training. Students in the treatment group were trained in mediation principles, communication skills, and social problem-solving strategies. The major goal of the program was to teach students to use alternatives to aggressive behavior in dealing with conflict. Study groups from the two schools were compared on the following variables: (a) the number of incidents of aggressive or disruptive behavior recorded by each school office for sixth grade students; (b) conduct grades; (c) self-esteem; (d) assertive behavioral responses; and (e) behavior as rated by teachers. It was hypothesized that: (a) students who received Conflict Management Training would have higher self-esteem and conduct compared to students who only received information about the program and also over students who received no information or training; (b) those receiving Conflict Management Training would have more appropriate behavior; and (c) incidents of aggressive behavior of sixth graders as recorded by the office would be lower at the school receiving the training than at the school not receiving it. This study was conducted with 62 predominantly black, urban sixth graders. A three group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design was used. The three groups were almost equally divided. Group A at School 1 received the training; Group B at School 1 received brief information about the program; and Group C at School 2 received no treatment.The impact of Conflict Management Training was assessed with the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, The Children's Action Tendency Scale, the Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavioral Rating Profile, conduct grades, and number of office referrals for aggressive behavior.

Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences among groups on the dependent variables of self-esteem, assertive responses, behavioral ratings by teachers, and conduct grades. Frequency analysis was used to compare differences between schools on office referrals. There were no differences among the three groups on any measure. There was a reported difference in the number of office referrals. This count reported positive change in the untreated school only. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 50-08A, Page 2432, 00180 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 255

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Dudley, Bruce

Year: 1991

Title: Effects of Peer Mediation Training on Elementary School Students

Pages: 21

Date: January 1991

Notes: Draft Copy Revised November 1991, January 1991; Running Head: Conflict Training

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 256

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger; Dudley, Bruce

Year: 1991

Title: Peer Mediation: Effects of Conflict Resolution training on Elementary School Students

Pages: 27

Date: November 1991

Label: Peer Mediation

Notes: Pre-publication copy.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 257

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Dudley, Bruce

Year: 1991

Title: Peer Mediation of Student Conflicts: A Self-Discipline School Program

Pages: 12

Date: August 1991

Label: Peer Mediation of Student Conflicts

Notes: Pre-publication copy.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 48

Author: Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T. ; Dudley, B.

Year: 1992

Title: Effects of peer mediation training on elementary school students

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 10(1): 89-99

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 49

Author: Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T.

Year of Conference: 1994

Title: Teaching students to be peacemakers: results of five years of research

Conference Name: NAME conference, 10 th Annual

Conference Location: Amherst, MA.

Date: July 22 - 27, 1994

Keywords: peer mediation, suburban schools, urban schools

Abstract: This paper reports on the results of mediation studies examining the student management of conflicts before and after peer mediation training. Seven studies were conducted from 1988 to 1994 with students from first through ninth grades, in both suburban and urban settings. The peer mediation trainings lasted from nine to fifteen hours in length. Extensive analysis was conducted of the effects of the training on students' approach to conflict.

Recommendations: The long-term goal put forth was that all students receive 12 years of peer mediation training. This goal can be achieved by: 1) Establishing a cooperative context within schools through cooperative learning; 2) Using academic controversies to increase achievement and motivation to learn; and 3) Establishing a "peacemaker," or peer mediation program. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 50

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

Year: 1994

Title: Constructive Conflict in the Schools

Journal: Journal of Social Issues 50,(1): 1994

Keywords: cooperative learning, constructive controversy, peer mediation, negotiation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 258

Author: Johnson, D.; Johnson, R.; Dudley, B.; Acikgoz, K.

Year: 1994

Title: The effects of conflict resolution training on elementary school students

Journal: The Journal of Social Psychology 134(6): 803-817

Notes: Reference in Heinecken and Gromko Article

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 51

Author: Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T.

Year: 1995

Title: Implementing cooperative learning: training sessions, transfer to the classroom, and maintaining long-term use

Editor: Davidson, N.; Brody, C. ; Cooper, C.

Book Title: Staff development for cooperative learning: issues and approaches

City: New York

Publisher: Teachers College Press

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 52

Author: Johnson, David W. ; Johnson., Roger T.

Year: 1995

Title: Teaching Students to be Peacemakers

City: Minneapolis

Institution: Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: cooperative learning, negotiation, peacemaking, suburban schools, urban schools

Abstract: This paper first provides an overview of the Teaching Students to be Peacemakers Program, which consists of four parts: 1) school faculty create a cooperative environment; 2) faculty teach all students how to be peacemakers; 3) once students have completed the initial training, the teachers implement the Peacemaker Program; and 4) faculty continue to teach students negotiation and mediation skills weekly throughout the school year to refine students' skills. It then describes the program's objectives and implementation approach. The paper concludes with a report on research studies conducted to examine the effectiveness of the program. These controlled field-experimental studies took place in inner-city and suburban school districts in the U.S. and Canada.

Conclusions: The findings indicated the following: 1) Students engage in conflicts daily; 2) Before training, students seemed to lack the knowledge to attempt negotiating conflicts, and managed their conflicts by trying to 'win'; 3) After the peacemaker training, students had acquired and retained the knowledge to negotiate and mediate conflicts; 4) Students were able to apply the negotiation and mediation procedures to conflicts; 5) Students were able to transfer their mediation skills to non-school settings; 6) Integration of peacemaker training into subject curriculum results in higher academic achievement by the students; 7) As a result of this program, the number of discipline problems decreased by 60 percent, and the number of referrals to the principal dropped by 95 percent; and 8) After training, students generally had a more positive attitude toward conflict. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 259

Author: Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, R.

Year: 1995

Title: Why Violence and Prevention Programs Don't Work and What Does

Journal: Educational Leadership 25(5): pp. 63-67

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 260

Author: Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T.

Year: 1995

Title: Teaching students to be peacemakers: results of five years of research

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology I(4): 417-438

Abstract: "Between 1988 and 1994 we conducted 7 studies on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training in 6 different schools in 2 different countries. Students involved were from first though ninth grades. Two approaches to peer mediation were studied-total student body and school cadre. The studies were conducted in both suburban and urban settings. The training programs lasted from 9-15 hours in length. Five of the studies involved control groups. ... The findings indicate that students learn the conflict resolution procedures taught, retain their knowledge throughout the school year, apply the conflict resolution procedures to actual conflicts, transfer the procedures to nonclassroom and nonschool settings, use the procedures similarly in family and school setting and when given the option, engage in problem solving rather than win-lose negotiations. The results further demonstrate that conflict resolution procedures can be taught in a way that increases academic achievement and that the adults in the school perceived the conflict resolution program to be constructive and helpful." From the author's abstract.

Notes: Requests for reprints should be sent to David W. Johnson, 202 Pattee Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 261

Author: Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, R.T.; Dudley, B; Magnuson, D.

Year: 1995

Title: Training elementary school students to manage conflict

Journal: Journal of Social Psychology 135: 673-686

Notes: Reference in Drug Strategies document

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 53

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson., Roger T.

Year: 1996

Title: Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Programs in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Review of the Research

Journal: Review of Educational Research 66(4): 459-506

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation

Abstract: The authors conclude that even though there are conceptual and methodological problems in the research on conflict resolution and peer mediation programs, the research to date of this review indicates the following: (from the article abstract)

Conflicts among students do occur frequently in schools (although the conflicts rarely result in serious injury);

Untrained students by and large use conflict strategies that create destructive outcomes by ignoring the importance of their ongoing relationships;

Conflict resolution and peer mediation programs do seem to be effective in teaching students integrative negotiation and mediation procedures;

After training, students tend to use these conflict strategies, which generally leads to constructive outcomes; and students' success in resolving their conflicts constructively tends to result in reducing the numbers of student-student conflicts referred to teachers and administrators, which, in turn, tends to reduced suspensions. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 262

Author: Johnson, D.; Johnson, R.

Year: 1996

Title: Conflict resolution and peer mediation programs in elementary and secondary schools: A review of the research.

Journal: Review of Educational Research 66: 459-506

Notes: Reference in Cardella and Van Slyck.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 342

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T

Year: 1996

Title: Teaching All Students How To Manage Conflicts Constructively: The Peacemakers Program.

Journal: Journal of Negro Education, 65(3): 322-35

Call Number: ISSN: 0022-2984

ERIC Identifier: EJ562107

Keywords: Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Conflict Resolution; Educational Research; Elementary Secondary Education;

Mediation Theory; Outcomes of Education; Peer Relationship; Program Descriptions; Program Evaluation; Student

Attitudes; Teaching Methods

Abstract: Describes the principles, practices, and procedures of the Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers program, a

comprehensive, schoolwide conflict resolution and peer mediation training initiative targeting grades 1 through 12. Findings of

the program's efficacy and impact in diverse school settings are presented. (GR)

Notes: ERIC; This document is NOT available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdc/EJ562107.htm

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 343

Author: Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

Year: 1996

Title: Reducing School Violence through Conflict Resolution Training.

Journal: NASSP Bulletin 80(579): 11-18

Call Number: ISSN: 0192-6365

ERIC Identifier: EJ522759

Keywords: Descriptors: Conflict Resolution; Cooperation; Elementary Secondary Education; Misconceptions; Prevention; Social

Problems; Student Behavior; Student Participation; Violence

Abstract: Although violence prevention programs can be helpful, they are frequently poorly targeted and unrealistic about the

social forces driving student behavior. Conflict-resolution training is effective when it occurs within a cooperative context,

teaches students when a conflict is or isn't occurring, stresses concrete negotiation and mediation procedures, and is properly

implemented. (12 references) (MLH)

Notes: ERIC; Available from: UMI; This document is NOT available from the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS).

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdb/EJ522759.htm

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 263

Author: Johnson, D., Johnson, R., Dudley, B., Mitchell, J., & Frederickson, J.

Year: 1997

Title: The impact of conflict resolution training on middle school students

Journal: The Journal of Social Psychology 137(1): 11-21

Notes: Reference in Heinecken and Gromko article

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 344

Author: Johnson, David, W.; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: Academic Controversy. Enriching College Instruction through Intellectual Conflict.

Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Graduate School of Education and Human Development.

Pages: 4

Type: ERIC Digest

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED409828

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: College Instruction; Colleges; Conflict Resolution; Controversial Issues (Course Content); Course Content; Creative Development; Critical Thinking; Debate; Debate Format; Educational Strategies; Higher Education; Instructional Innovation; Instructional Materials; Intellectual Development; Persuasive Discourse; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods; Universities; Verbal Communication

IDENTIFIERS: Academic Discourse; Constructive Controversy; ERIC Digests

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This digest summarizes a larger document of the same title which takes the position that because American Democracy is founded on the premise that citizens need to engage in free and open discussion of opposing points of view, it is important that intellectual conflict become part of college instruction. It suggests several ways in which structured academic

controversy and intellectual conflict can be used to enrich classroom instruction at colleges and universities. Five steps are

proposed as a way to create an academic experience that will result in increased achievement and retention, better problem-solving and decision-making skills, positive interpersonal relationships, and greater social competence and self-esteem. The steps are: first, pairs of students are assigned to research and prepare an assigned issue; second, they present the best case

possible; then, opposing pairs engage in open discussion, advocating their initial position while learning the opposing one;

next, students reverse perspective to present the opposing position; and, finally, students integrate different ideas and facts into a single position. The instructor sets objectives for learning and social skills, monitors the student debate, and evaluates academic achievement. (CH)

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports, The George Washington University, One Dupont Circle, Suite 630, Washington, DC 20036-1183

URL: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed409828.html

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 345

Author: Johnson, Marcia L.

Year: 1998

Title: Trends in Peace Education.

Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education

Pages: 4

Type: ERIC Digest

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED417123

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Elementary Secondary Education; Environmental Education; Global Education; International Relations; Peace; Role Playing; Social Studies; Social Values; United States History; World Affairs

IDENTIFIERS: ERIC Digests; Peace Education

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This ERIC Digest reviews the development and current status of peace education in the United States. After briefly surveying the peace education movement from its origins with a small group of educators in New England in the 1800s through its

stigmatization as being anti-American during periods of hot and cold war, the Digest devotes more attention to recent trends of the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, peace education has taken on a number of forms, including conflict resolution aiming at reducing youth violence, anti-nuclear education, and role playing games, cultural exchanges, and other programs to promote global awareness. Most recently, e-mail and the World Wide Web have been used to promote the exchange of information and ideas. The Digest includes a list of online resources for peace education and a 10-item bibliography of references and ERIC resources. (MLJ)

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, 2805 East Tenth Street, Suite 120, Bloomington, IN, 47408, telephone: 812-855-3838; 800-266-3815.

URL: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed417123.html

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 54

Author: Jones, T.S.; D., Carlin

Year: 1994

Title: Philadelphia peer mediation program: report for 1992 1994 period.

City: Philadelphia, PA

Institution: Good Shepherd Neighborhood House and the Office of Desegregation of the Philadelphia Public School District

Date: 1994, August

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 264

Author: Jones, T.; Carlin, D.

Year: 1994

Title: Teach Your Children Well: Suggestions for Peer Mediation Programs in the Schools

Editor: Folger, J.; Jones, T.

Book Title: New Directions in Mediation: Communication Research and Perspectives

Pages: pp. 159-174

Notes: Pre-publication copy; Also presented as paper at Speech Communication Association Convention, Miami, November 1993.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 265

Author: Jones, T.

Year of Conference: 1995

Title: The Philadelphia Peer Mediation Project: Progress, Prospects, and Recommendations for Research in Peer Mediation

Conference Name: Speech communication Association

Conference Location: San Antonio, TX

Date: November 1995

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 266

Author: Jones, T.

Year: 1996

Title: Comprehensive Peer Mediation Evaluation Project: Year One Summary report

City: Philadelphia

Institution: Temple University Department of Communications

Date: 1996

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 55

Author: Jones, Tricia

Year: 1997

Title: Comprehensive Peer Mediation Evaluation Project: Preliminary Final Report

Institution: William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Surdna Foundation

Date: Oct. 27, 1997

Type: project evaluation report, research report

Keywords: cadre, comprehensive, conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools - 27, several cities, suburban schools, urban schools

Abstract: Purpose: This peer mediation research project was intended to provide research information on the efficacy of peer mediation programs. It was a two-year research project, investigating the impact of cadre and whole school peer mediation programs on students' conflict attitudes and behaviors, school climate, and the use of mediation as a dispute resolution process. The research questions were: (1) Does peer mediation impact students' conflict attitudes and behavior? (2) Does peer mediation impact school climate? (3) Do peer mediation programs effectively handle disputes? (4) Are cadre programs better than whole school programs (or vice versa)? (5) Are peer mediation programs equally effective (or ineffective) for elementary, middle, and high school? (6) Are the gender and race/ethnicity of students related to the impact of peer mediation programs?

Methodology: Two programs were offered and measured: (1) a peer mediation or cadre only model for grades four through 12; and (2) whole school programs using curriculum infusion to teach CR skills. Sampling included 27 schools across three sites. Across all grade levels the totals involved were 430 peer mediators, 5400 control students, 1400 conflict training students, and 1225 teachers/administrative staff. The quantitative instruments used included: frequency of conflict, personal values, aggressiveness, conflict styles, conflict competence/perspective taking and school climate.

Findings: Data from this study showed that peer mediation programs: (1) provide significant benefit in developing constructive social and conflict behavior in children at all levels; (2) can significantly improve school climate and sustain that improvement over an extended period of time; (3) are very effective at handling disputes at all educational levels, however, the number of cases documented suggests that mediation may be underutilized in comparison to its potential benefits; (4) both program models yielded significant benefits - cadre programs have a stronger impact in terms of student conflict attitudes and behavior, and were more effective in increasing perspective taking and conflict competence skills for peer mediators, while whole school programs had a stronger positive effect on school climate at the middle and high school levels; (5) are effective at all educational levels. (6) The data indicates that race and gender do not impact program efficacy.

Recommendations: (1) The promotion of peer mediation programs and specific training in mediation related skills should be a priority for the development of social and conflict competence in children. (2) Peer mediation programs can be used to develop constructive climates but should not be used as a primary-violence prevention effort. (3) Schools need to support and give attention to program implementation and sustained utilization. (4) Program models should be chosen with respect to a school's resources, goals, and size. More is not necessarily better. (5) Program development at all levels will benefit school districts. (6) The study suggests that peer mediation programs are beneficial for diverse populations. Carolyne Ashton

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 267

Author: Jones, T.; Bodtker, A.

Year: 1997

Title: Guidelines for Successful Peer Mediation Programs

Editor: Schnitman, Littlejohn and

Book Title: Mediation: Perspectives, Practices and Domains,

Publisher: Paidos Press

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 56

Author: Jones, Tricia S.

Year: 1998

Title: Research Supports Effectiveness of Peer Mediation

Journal: The Fourth R 82(March, April 1998): 1 ff

Keywords: cadre, comprehensive, conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools, several cities, suburban schools, urban schools

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Patent

Record Number: 57

Author: Judge, J.J., Jr.

Year: 1994

Title: Peer mediation: peaceful alternatives in empowering students

Country: Dayton, OH

Assignee: University of Dayton

 

Reference Type: Patent

Record Number: 58

Author: Judge, J.J., Jr.

Year: 1994

Title: Toward an understanding of peer mediation programs in elementary and secondary schools

Country: Dayton, OH

Assignee: University of Dayton

Date: April 1994

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 59

Author: Kalmakoff, Sandy ; Shaw, Jeanne

Year: 1987

Title: Final Report of the School Peacemakers Education Project

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: negotiation

Abstract: This paper reports on the School Peacemaker Education Project that was conducted in seven elementary school of the Burnaby School District. The project is aimed at implementing elementary school curriculum that will improve children's peer conflict resolution skills through creative negotiation. The paper provides information regarding the mandate and preparation of the project, the conceptual framework utilized, the implementation, and the post-implementation revisions of the curriculum based on the experience. Methods of evaluating the project included assessment tests completed by students both before and after the program; teacher, parent, and student interviews; and subjective data gathered by the observations of project staff.

Conclusions: The evaluation produced the following results: 1) In post-tests consisting of general questions about conflict and conflict situations, there was an overall improvement in most students from the pre-test; 2) Some students were confused by the material, and were not able to completely memorize the steps of negotiation; 3) Role-playing was identified as the student's favorite activity while worksheets and homework were the least favorites; 4) Most students enjoyed the program and felt that it would benefit them in resolving conflicts in the future; 5) Approximately one third of parents indicated that they noticed behavior changes and attribute them to the program; and 6) All of the teachers were positive about the program, and also attributed positive behavior changes in the children to the program.

Recommendations: 1) A longer period of time should be allotted for the program in order to see true integration and behavioral changes; 2) Additional material should be integrated into the curriculum regarding assertive behavior for times when negotiation is not appropriate (e.g."bullies"); 3) There should be better adaptation and accommodation to recognize the varying needs of students with different learning abilities; 4) The program should be more active in encouraging parent involvement; and 5) The program should move toward the goal of having lessons taught by the teacher so that he/she can integrate the messages into the daily life of the classroom. MS

Notes: Canada

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 346

Author: Kammerer, Ann

Year: 1998

Title: Conflict Management: Action Research.

: 32

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED422100

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Action Research; Conflict Resolution; Elementary School Students; Intermediate Grades; Interpersonal Competence; Peer Relationship; Problem Solving; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation

IDENTIFIERS: Conflict Management; Peer Mediation

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This study examined the use of Conflict Managers, a program teaching students communication skills and the ways to apply these skills to resolve their own conflicts. Participating were 33 fourth and fifth graders from middle class families and with varying academic abilities. Of the participants, 23 were Caucasian, 4 Asian-American, 1 African-American, and 6 Hispanic-American. All students spoke English as a first language. Twelve students' parents were divorced. The Conflict Managers program was comprised of 4 weeks of training, in which students took a pre- and posttest, participated in group activities dealing with perspective-taking, nonverbal communication, the mediation process, "I-messages," and problem-solving practice. Teaching methods included role play, homework, and lunch meetings. Students were on duty as Conflict Managers in red vests or shirts, readily identifiable by classmates. The posttest findings indicated that following the training, students showed greater understanding of conflict as natural and potentially positive. Resolutions were obtained to 40 out of 46 conflicts; however, not ll of the resolutions were positive. Findings suggest that additional training was needed to assist students in developing better resolutions. Although some students did receive additional training in listening skills, conflict styles, and problem identification, the impact of this training had not yet been determined. (Contains 17 references.) (KB)

Notes: ERIC

URL: http://ericae.net/ericdc/ED422100.htm

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 60

Author: Kaufman, S.

Year: 1990

Title: Assessment of the implementation of conflict management programs in 17 Ohio Schools: First Year Report School Demonstration Project 1990-1993.

City: Columbus, OH

Institution: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 268

Author: Kaufman, P.; Chen, X.; Choy, S. P.; Chandler, K. A.; Chapman, D.D.; Rand, M.R. ; Ringel, C.

Year: 1998

Title: Indicators of School Crime and Safety

City: Washington, DC

Institution: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice

Call Number: NCES 98-251/NCJ-172215

Notes: Single hard copies can be ordered through ED Pubs at 1-800-4ED-PUBS (NCES 98-251);

URL: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=98251 or http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/iscs98.htm

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 159

Author: KELLE, JERILYN FAY COLLIER

Year: 1997

Title: PEDAGOGY OF POWER: EDUCATION FOR PARTICIPATORY, DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP (CRITICAL PEDAGOGY, CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY

Adviser: EMILY ROBERTSON

Number of Pages: 162

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9821488

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, HISTORY OF; EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF

Abstract: Reports assert that American civil society is breaking down, specifically that there is an "eclipse" of active and responsible citizenship. Many are calling on public schools to provide a remedy for weak citizenship in the form of civic and character education. But some of the same reports also suggest that Americans doubt the ability and interest of democratic citizens. I refute the common belief that the eclipse of citizenship is due simply to citizens being unwilling to be socially responsible, that they are apathetic, or they are lacking in character, intelligence or discipline. The fact is that a particular political philosophy and educational arrangements were decided long ago that were based on inactive citizenship. Additionally, dominant American economic and social cultures have long played major roles in forming citizen attitudes and behaviors. The theory herein of the expansion of democratic citizenship to a more powerful role in local and national public affairs is grounded in the Anti-federalist and Jeffersonian arguments that a good Constitution is necessary but not sufficient to create a democratic way of life. But, for a more powerful and participatory role, citizens must be appropriately educated, specifically for (a) agency, (b) civility, and (c) equal opportunity, understood as citizen efficacy, cooperation and respect, and justice.

Results: Employing a new pedagogy of power as a basis for this kind of democratic education, American public schools can contribute to enabling powerful citizenship. A few exemplary public school programs are provided. Although the feasibility of a new pedagogy of power is dubious, change can be based on the premise that (1) reality is not static, and, (2) transformations of the individual and society are reciprocal and dynamic in nature, i.e., individuals' consciousness transform while they are trying to transcend existing limits imposed by society and therein change society's limits and themselves in the process. However, any proposal for democratizing education and changing teacher practices must address changes on both the individual and social levels. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-01A, Page 0073, 00162 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 160

Author: KELLER, THOMAS JAMES

Year: 1997

Title: A MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENT-CENTERED CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM: IMPACT ON STUDENT MANAGERS' SELF-ESTEEM, COMMUNICATION SKILLS, AND APPROACHES TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION

University: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN IOWA

Advisers: RADHI H. AL-MABUK; JAMES L. KELLY

Number of Pages: 153

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9728885

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine self-esteem, communication skills, and approaches to conflict resolution of trained student mediators in a conflict resolution program. This study also assessed the perceived transferability of conflict management information and skills from the school to the home environment. Indicators were the frequency, duration, and intensity of sibling conflicts reported by conflict managers and their parents. The subjects in this study consisted of 60 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at two different middle schools in the state of Iowa. Thirty were trained as conflict managers and assigned to the experimental group, and thirty to the control group. Data were gathered and analyzed in two parts: (a) a pretest-posttest experimental design which investigated differences in the experimental and control group on the dependent variables of pre-post change scores in self-esteem, communication skills, and approaches to conflict resolution, and (b) a pretest-posttest single group design which investigated differences in the experimental group on the dependent variables of pre-post change scores in frequency, duration, intensity of conflict, and amount of positive conflict resolution skills as perceived by the conflict managers and their parents. This second method utilizes the procedures in a study by Gentry and Benenson (1993). The results of the first part of the data analysis indicated that students demonstrated a statistically significant increase in constructive approaches to resolving conflict at one school.

Results: The results further indicated a tendency to use less destructive approaches to resolving conflict and an increase in communication skills; however, it was not statistically significant. Self-esteem was an unchanged variable. The second part of the data analysis indicated statistical significance in the decrease in number of conflicts as perceived by parents, a decrease in the amount of time it took to settle conflicts as perceived by students, a decrease in blameful behavior toward siblings as perceived by students and parents, and a decrease in how much the conflict managers tried to win when engaged in conflict as perceived by students and parents. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-04A, Page 1208, 00153 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 61

Author: Keltner, J.W.

Year: 1994

Title: The management of struggle: elements of dispute resolution through negotiation, mediation, and arbitration

City: Cresskill, NJ

Publisher: Hampton Press

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 269

Author: Kendall, J. S.; Marzano, R. J.

Year: 1994

Title: The systematic identification and articulation of content standards and benchmarks (Update)

City: Aurora, CO

Publisher: Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 270

Author: Kenney, Dennis Jay; Watson, Steuart

Year: 1999

Title: Crime in the Schools: Reducing Conflict with Student Problem Solving

City: Washington, DC

Institution: Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice

Pages: 11

Date: July 1999

Type: Research Brief

Report Number: NIJ 177618

Keywords: police resource officer, problem solving, school-based

Abstract: Issues and Findings

Discussed in this Brief: A project to investigate a student-based problem-solving model for reducing crime in the Nation's schools. A quasi-experimental research design was employed that captured data in 3 waves from more than 450 students attending 11th grade social science classes in 2 schools (1 experimental and 1 control) during the 1994-95 school year.

Key Issues: As envisioned, school-based problem solving changes the attitudes and/or behaviors of group members and offers the skills and knowledge needed to bring about desired change. A guided group process can reduce school crime and disorder and improve the overall school climate. As student accept responsibility for their school environment, they develop improved attitudes regarding the police, their peers, the fairness and clarity of school and social rules, their own abilities to influence change, and even school itself.

A student-based problem-solving model has been successfully implemented in the Charlotte-Mecklenberg County (North Carolina) School District. Specific changes were expected in the actual rates of crime and violence: in the levels of fear among students, teachers, and staff; and in the overall attitudes of participants. Anticipated impacts related to teacher feelings of safety, evaluation of the school and educational environment, and subtle effects on student performance and the willingness to accept responsibility for one's own "community."

Key findings: Project data revealed that the most significant school problems may not be what we often imagine. Although gangs, drugs, and armed agitators may receive the most attention, most of the conflicts uncovered during this project concerned everyday school interactions (e.g., an insufficient supply of pizza). Students desire a safer, more orderly school environment. Additional findings include the following:

-Substantial levels of fear among student and teachers were significantly reduced by the second and third waves of data collection.

-While nearly 1 in 5 student had to fight to protect themselves during the last school term before the start of the project, fewer than 1 in 10 did so by project completion.

-The number of students who saw teachers threatened by students declined by a third, and those who witnessed physical attacks on teachers dropped by more than half.

-By the end of the project year, 40 percent fewer students in the experimental school feared that someone would hurt or bother them during school hours.

-A 29 percent schoolwide reduction in incidents requiring student suspension included 70 percent fewer "student-student conflict and 46 percent fewer "student teacher conflict suspensions.

Target audience: Teachers and other educational staff; staff of youth agencies, public health, juvenile justice, and criminal justice officials and practitioners; researchers and practitioners in conflict resolution and related areas; and others concerned with violence prevention.

Notes: This and other NIJ publications can be found at and downloaded from the NIJ Web site at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij.

URL: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/177618.htm

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 347

Author: Kesner, John E.

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Conflict Management in Children's Play: The Role of Parent-Child Attachment.

Conference Name: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the NCFR Fatherhood and Motherhood in a Diverse and Changing World (59th)

Conference Location: Arlington, VA

Pages: 9

Date: November 7-10, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED417021

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Age Differences; Attachment Behavior; Blacks; Conflict Resolution; Hispanic Americans; One Parent Family; Parent Child Relationship; Play; Predictor Variables; Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Relationship; Sex Differences;

Socioeconomic Status; Whites

IDENTIFIERS: African Americans; Security of Attachment

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between the security of preschool children's attachment relationship to their parents and how they negotiated and managed hypothetical conflict with peers. Participating were 66 preschool-age children recruited from child care facilities and residing in a large urban area in the southeastern United States. The sample had an average age of 57 months, was predominantly African American, and represented a wide range of socioeconomic status (SES) groups; 45 percent of the sample came from single-parent homes. Children completed the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT) and a Conflict Story Completion Task (CSCT), both requiring the child to complete a story begun by the researcher. The

ASCT responses were scored on a 4-point scale of security of attachment. The subjects' problem-solving strategy and

resolution to the hypothetical conflict on the CSCT were scored for constructiveness. Results indicated that conflict strategy and resolutions were positively related to attachment security and negatively related to SES. Security of attachment was related to the child's age and gender. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that attachment security and SES predicted conflict strategy. Significant predictors of conflict resolution included attachment security and single-parent family status. As predicted, attachment security was a unique predictor of the child's choice of conflict strategy and resolution to hypothetical conflict stories. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/KB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 161

Author: KEWLEY, LANADALE

Year: 1996

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANISMS THAT ACCOUNT FOR POSITIVE COGNITIVE CHANGE WHEN STUDENTS COLLABORATE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS (COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, PROBLEM-SOLVING)

University: STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO

Chair: DOUGLAS CLEMENTS

Number of Pages: 281

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9617876

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD

Abstract: Four fifth graders of mixed gender with above average ability participated in a qualitative study carried out in their own classroom to investigate the mechanisms that account for positive cognitive change when students collaborate to solve problems. The emphasis was on the joint construction of knowledge which best explains the continuity of learning. Over a five month period the students were observed and videotaped in their cooperative group during their regular mathematics periods while collaborating to solve problems integrating concepts related to area and fractions. The transcriptions of the videotapes were supplemented by field notes, audiotaped interviews with the participants, activities used for follow-up assignments and formative assessments, and journals that were maintained by both the students and the teacher. The treatment of the data involved a variety of approaches. These approaches included the microanalysis of data to examine how theories or parts of existing theories of social learning were relevant to the evolving conceptual categories, and the macroanalysis of data to look for persistent or changing patterns of behavior from episode to episode over time.

Results: Emerging from the data was a dominant pattern of interactions suggesting that cooperation in collaborative problem solving existed mainly around the analysis rather than the synthesis of a solution, Group analysis resulted in the appropriation of ideas among peers, and generated a great deal of inter- and intraindividual conflict which was resolved through several different methods. Unlike the mechanisms typically involved in a teacher-student learning context, conflict as part of the group process and its successful resolution were key factors to individual cognitive growth. Findings from the study supported the Vygotskian notion that social activity is transformed into internal, individual activity. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-01A, Page 0088, 00281 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 348

Author: Khattri, Nidhi

Year: 1991

Title: An Assessment of the Social Validity of Cooperative Learning and Conflict Resolution Programs in an Alternative

Inner City High School

City: New York

University: Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers Coll. International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution

Number of Pages: 138p

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED359275

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Economically Disadvantaged; Group Dynamics; High

School Students; High Schools; Inner City; Interpersonal Competence; Minority Group Children; Nontraditional Education;

Program Effectiveness; Sensitivity Training; Student Attitudes; Teacher Attitudes; Urban Schools; Urban Youth

IDENTIFIERS: African Americans; New York City Board of Education; Social Validity

Abstract: A study was done to evaluate the social validity of the interventions of conflict resolution and cooperative learning at three campuses of an alternative inner-city high school in New York City. The evaluation explored students' and teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness and applicability of the interventions in their lives. Extensive interviews were conducted, and questionnaire data were collected for 36 of 48 teachers and for 177 students on the Intervention Report Survey and 204 students on the Interpersonal Improvement Questionnaire. The student population was primarily Black and Hispanic American from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. In addition, teachers gave feedback on the training they received for doing cooperative learning and conflict resolution lessons with their students. Students found the interventions to be useful and experienced interpersonal improvements in their lives. The teachers gave moderate endorsement of the interventions and considered cooperative learning to be useful for their students' academic learning and social and psychological development. Teachers judged conflict resolution to be moderately valuable for the students' development and quite useful in the students' everyday lives. Overall, the results indicate that cooperative learning and conflict resolution programs were useful and valid. Included are 30 tables; 11 figures; 4 appendixes containing reliability information, teacher data, student data, and descriptions of the instruments in 7 tables; student questionnaires on conflict resolution and on cooperative learning; and 48 references. (JB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 271

Author: Khor, K.

Year: 1995

Title: Violence Plagued Schools Turn to Conflict Resolution

Journal: Consensus

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 162

Author: KING, IVAN LEROY

Year: 1997

Title: IS SPIRITUALITY THE MISSING DIMENSION OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION?

University: THE UNION INSTITUTE

Number of Pages: 202

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9820057

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; POLITICAL SCIENCE, INTERNATIONAL LAW AND RELATIONS; RELIGION, BIBLICAL STUDIES; SOCIOLOGY, CRIMINOLOGY AND PENOLOGY

Abstract: Conflicts which escalate to violence are prevalent in society at all levels. Through introspection, the author's reasons for engaging this objective are presented. Given the desire to learn, by way of extensive research, the manuscript reports the findings and on some definitions of conflict, conflict theories, and the levels where various types of conflict and violence occur, and at times are resolved. Conflicts were observed at various levels: Interpersonal conflicts were observed during an internship at a circuit court; community conflicts were investigated and analyzed at the county level; national and international conflicts and attempts at resolution were viewed and reported, the result of visits in and around the United States and to four foreign countries.

Results: One finding is the need to stem the tide of harm and disharmony. As a consequence of these undertakings, the document presents ideas and examples of sources from which a variety of aid (financial and other types of resources) may be obtained. Educational solutions are presented. These are available to groups, communities, and even to nation-state consumers, with the option to develop and to use pertinent and applicable agenda items. Finally, the question is posed as the challenge to be faced and answered: "Is Spirituality the Missing Dimension of Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention?" A reader's failure to have, to know, or if unable to determine an answer, in turn, should be a stimulus for continued research to find possible solutions to assist in, and stem the propensity for conflict to escalate to violence, even in the face of no provocation. Again, the reader is challenged to be introspective and to search for an answer apart form the author's. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-12A, Page 4568, 00202 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 349

Author: Kmitta, Daniel; Berlowitz, Marvin

Year: 1993

Title: Evaluation of the Center for Peace Education Programs 1992-1993. Final Report

City: Cincinnati: Cincinnati University College of Education

Institution: Cincinnati Univ., OH. Coll. of Education

Pages: 130

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED405390

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Arbitration; Conflict Resolution; Curriculum Development; Disadvantaged Youth; Elementary Secondary

Education; Interpersonal Communication; Peace; Peer Counseling; Prevention; Problem Solving; Program Evaluation;

Training; Urban Schools; Violence

IDENTIFIERS: Ohio (Cincinnati); Peace Education; Social Justice

Abstract: The Center for Peace Education is an ecumenical nonprofit organization that provides educational programs for peace and social justice in the Cincinnati (Ohio) area. In the 1980s, through a gradual process, the Center introduced nonviolence and conflict-resolution training into several urban schools in and around greater Cincinnati. In 1992 the Center began to offer college credit to some participants in its nonviolent conflict-resolution training. Two of the Center's programs are conflict-resolution curricula. The "Students' Creative Response to Conflict" (SCRC) and the Cooperative Discipline Program give both students and teachers the skills to resolve conflicts without violence. The Peer Mediation program uses trained student peer mediators to resolve conflicts that have already occurred between two students. These programs were evaluated in 1992-93, with the SCRC's receiving the most attention. Direct observation and surveys of participants provided evaluation data. Evaluation of the three programs demonstrates that the organization is a valuable resource for reducing the potential for violence in the Cincinnati public schools. Four appendixes present details about the evaluation. There are 31 tables of evaluation data. (SLD) Funding also provided by the Greater Cincinnati Foundation and Jacob G. Schmidlapp Trusts.

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: Center for Peace Education, 103 William Howard Taft Road, Cincinnati, OH 45219

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 272

Author: Kmitta, Daniel M.

Year: 1994

Title: Conflict, Critics and Conflict Resolution

Journal: The Fourth R 52: 28-31

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 62

Author: Kmitta, Daniel M.

Year: 1997

Title: Peaceful Possibilities: Three Years of Evaluative Research of School Based Conflict Resolution Programs

University: University of Cincinnati

Type of Work: dissertation, meta-analysis, program evaluation report, research review

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools, peer mediation

Abstract: One section examines the research literature that is most often used to establish the need for conflict resolution programs. Critically examines the evidence to suggest that youth violence is more the product of a violent culture and that youth are the victims in this culture and that conflict resolution programs will only be effective when the society at large chooses to use nonviolent conflict resolution rather than violence to resolve conflicts. Another section is a comprehensive narrative review of the school based conflict resolution research literature and meta-analysis (best evidence synthesis) of selected quantitative research. Two main questions inform much of the research in school-based conflict resolution: What are the changes in classroom climate including intrapersonal issues (e.g., self esteem, values) and interpersonal issues (e.g., having friends, negotiation); and What are the changes in ability to resolve conflict nonviolently including mediation procedures, knowledge of conflict resolution and attitudes about conflict. A summary of ten mediation evaluation programs demonstrates a success rate ranging from 82% to 100% with the average success rate at 88.5% - mediation is successful in resolving disputes among students. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 163

Author: KMITTA, DANIEL MARK

Year: 1997

Title: PEACEFUL POSSIBILITIES: THREE YEARS OF EVALUATIVE RESEARCH OF SCHOOL BASED CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAMS

University: UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

Chair: MARVIN J. BERLOWITZ

Number of Pages: 262

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9734954

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools, peer mediation, meta-analysis, program evaluation report, research review

Abstract: Peaceful possibilities: three years of evaluative research of school based conflict resolution programs, is a dissertation which has two literature reviews. The first is a theoretical review which reveals the fragmentation of the theories informing school based conflict resolution program development. The second review, an empirical review, found that conflict resolution programs do improve one's knowledge of alternatives in resolving conflict. Three school based conflict resolution programs, The Students' Creative Response to Conflict, Cooperative Discipline and Peer Mediation, were evaluated in twelve public schools over a three year period, 1992-1995. The programs were delivered by the Center for Peace Education (CPE), Cincinnati, Ohio. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the evaluations. Data analysis, coupled performance rubrics with triangulation of key statistical and empirical data, to answer research questions relevant to a wide audience. What theories informed the CPE's school based conflict resolution programs? How should the CPE's conflict resolution programs be evaluated? Did the CPE's conflict resolution programs reduce classroom discipline problems? Did the CPE's conflict resolution programs prevent or reduce violence? Were the conflict resolution skills integrated into the day to day academic curriculum? What did the CPEs conflict resolution programs teach? Life skills to help people resolve their differences nonviolently, or a new form of obedience training?

Results: Results of the research indicate that conflict resolution programs do have limited but positive effects. Such effects are dependent upon the quality and type of the conflict resolution training. The discussion addresses lessons learned and new directions. The bibliography contains over two hundred citations. Author

One section examines the research literature that is most often used to establish the need for conflict resolution programs. Critically examines the evidence to suggest that youth violence is more the product of a violent culture and that youth are the victims in this culture and that conflict resolution programs will only be effective when the society at large chooses to use nonviolent conflict resolution rather than violence to resolve conflicts. Another section is a comprehensive narrative review of the school based conflict resolution research literature and meta-analysis (best evidence synthesis) of selected quantitative research. Two main questions inform much of the research in school-based conflict resolution: What are the changes in classroom climate including intrapersonal issues (e.g., self esteem, values) and interpersonal issues (e.g., having friends, negotiation); and What are the changes in ability to resolve conflict nonviolently including mediation procedures, knowledge of conflict resolution and attitudes about conflict. A summary of ten mediation evaluation programs demonstrates a success rate ranging from 82% to 100% with the average success rate at 88.5% - mediation is successful in resolving disputes among students. MB

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 2055, 00262 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 63

Author: Kmitta, Daniel M.

Year: 1998

Title: A Preliminary Meta-Analysis of School-Based Conflict Resolution Programs

Journal: The Fourth R 82

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 164

Author: KOLAN, KATHY LYNN

Year: 1999

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHORT-TERM IMPACT OF PEER MEDIATION ON HIGH SCHOOL DISPUTANTS IN AN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE SUBURBAN SCHOOL SYSTEM (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

Number of Pages: 150

Type of Work: Dissertation, EDD

Accession Number: AAT 9920324

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533); LAW (0398); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519)

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions from high school disputants in an ethnically diverse suburban public school system on the short-term impact of the peer mediation process. A total of 111 disputants provided data for this study. The disputants' perceptions were surveyed and analyzed. The following factors were examined to determine the short-term impact of peer mediation; the number of agreements still in effect 5 to 7 days after mediation, and whether or not the disputants could describe what the dispute and/or agreement was about. The more important question addressed was could the disputants describe what happened to them during the process that brought them to a successful signing of an agreement? Success rates were compared to several demographic characteristics of the disputants. The final research questions addressed the disputants' perceptions of the mediators during the process.

Findings indicated that peer mediation was successful for students of all ethnic backgrounds. Significant findings were found in the areas of the fairness of the agreement compared to ethnicity and age, the length of time the disputants had known one another compared to the strength of the agreement, and the ethnicity of the disputant compared to whether or not they would use mediation in the future. Author

Notes: DAI-A 60/02, p. 384, Aug 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 64

Author: Korpi, Meg; Kaplan, Gail; Arons, Stephen

Year: 1990

Title: Menlo-Atherton Mediation Program First-Year Evaluation Report

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: district-wide, peer mediation, racial conflict

Abstract: This paper reports on the first-year implementation of the Menlo-Atherton Mediation Program, which was established to deal with racial misunderstandings and conflicts within the Menlo-Atherton District through providing voluntary mediation services. Assessment of the program combined:

1) Observations of trainings and mediation; 2) Interviews with program staff, teachers, school administrators, mediators and disputants; 3) Self-administered questionnaires; and 4) Program records of mediation cases.

Conclusions: The results of this assessment, which are too extensive to mention here, provide detailed statistics in the following areas: 1) Levels of exposure to the program of district members; 2) Ratings of importance, effectiveness, and quality of the program from district members; 3) Willingness to participate of district members; 4) Performance and skill development of mediators; 5) Level of use and success rate of mediation; 6) Nature of the conflicts mediated; and 7) Common complaints about the program from district members.

Recommendations: Based on the assessment of the first year of implementation, the following was recommended for further development of the program: 1) Promote public understanding and awareness of the program; 2) Make an effort to involve more teachers in the process; 3) Assist mediators in skill development and advanced training; 4) Contribute to increased public education and outreach regarding conflict resolution issues; 5) Improve scheduling process and service delivery of mediators. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 65

Author: Kotchka, Karen

Year: 1994

Title: John S. Park Elementary School Mediation Program Evaluation Report

City: Las Vegas, NB

Institution: Clark County Social Service

Pages: 12

Date: August 1994

Type: evaluation report

Keywords: peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Electronic Source

Record Number: 273

Author: Kozaczek, Les

Year: 1998

Title: School Violence Reduced When Students Participate in Problem Solving

Producer: American News Service

Access Year: 1999

Access Date: 10/20/99

Abstract: Report of a study, comparing varying approaches to discipline and safety issues in the nation's schools, found that schools where student problem solving was incorporated into the curriculum had the most success in reducing violence. Dennis Kenney, co-authored the report "Reducing Fear in the Schools which was to be issued in April 1998 by the Police Executive Research Forum. MB

URL: http://www.mediate.com/articles/school.cfm?plain=t

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 66

Author: Kuriloff, Peter J.; Goldberg, Steven S.

Year: 1997

Title: Is Mediation a Fair Way to Resolve Special Education Disputes? First Empirical Findings

Journal: Harvard Negotiation Law Review 2(Spring 1997): 35-66

Notes: +

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 67

Author: Lam, J. A.

Year: 1989

Title: The impact of conflict resolution programs on schools: a review and synthesis of the evidence, (2nd ed)

City: Amherst, MA

Publisher: National Association for Mediation in Education

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 274

Author: Lam, Julie A.

Year: 1989

Title: School Mediation Program Evaluation Kit

City: Amherst, MA

Publisher: National Association for Mediation in Education

Number of Pages: 24

Abstract: This is a collection of school mediation reporting forms and questionnaires: Monthly Report Form, Program Contact Form, Program Training Evaluation Form, Program Trainee Questionnaire, Program Letter to Parents, Program Consent Form, School Climate Questionnaire, Program Follow-up Form.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 165

Author: LANE-GARON, PAMELA S

Year: 1997

Title: SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE TAKING IN STUDENT MEDIATORS (MEDIATORS, CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

Number of Pages: 113

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9725307

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: Social-cognitive perspective taking of elementary school students was examined in the context of a schoolwide conflict resolution program. The study compared perspective taking of children trained as mediators with untrained participants over the course of an academic year. Dependent variables were perspective taking and interpersonal problem-solving strategy choice. Independent variables were mediation training/practice and gender. Dependent variables included cognitive, affective and projective aspects of perspective taking. One hundred twelve students in 4th through 8th grades in a bicultural school community participated. Sixty-two students were selected and trained to mediate the disputes of their peers on the playground. Another 50 students served as a comparison group for purposes of evaluation. The 50 nonmediators were aware of the program and sometimes participated as disputants in mediations on the playground. Training was assisted by the Arizona State Attorney General's Office of Community Relations. The interval between pre and post intervention assessment was six months. Results of repeated measures of analyses of variance showed that perspective taking scores on the cognitive and affective perspective taking scales of the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index increased over time for all participants, with the students trained as mediators showing greater increases than the untrained students. Pre-to-post increases in perspective taking indicate that the cognitive and affective perspective taking of mediators may be enhanced by mediation training and playground mediation practice. Further, the finding that perspective taking scores of untrained participants increased substantially suggests that observational learning and participation in mediation as disputants may also have a favorable influence on perspective taking. Females scored slightly higher than males on perspective taking measures, although not significantly so. Boys and girls showed different pre-to-post changes in problem-solving strategy preference. Males more than females initially preferred to seek adult help for interpersonal problem-solving. This preference decreased at post-intervention assessment. From pre-to-post assessment, males slightly increased their preference for mediation, while females' preference decreased. For all participants, the preference for talking to the peer disputant directly increased over time.

Results: The implications of study findings for educational intervention are threefold: First, school based mediation programs appear to contribute to the development of student social competence by enhancing perspective taking and encouraging independence in interpersonal problem-solving. Second, students' conflict resolution strategy choices are affected by mediation training and practice and by the gender of participants. Third, mediation programs may enhance school climate by improving attitudes and skills of untrained students as well as those who formally serve as mediators. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-03A, Page 0738, 00113 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 350

Author: Lane-Garon, Pamela S.; Nelsen, Edward A.

Year of Conference: 1998

Title: An Exploration of Children's Strategy Choices for Resolving Conflict.

Conference Name: American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: San Diego, CA

Pages: 17

Date: April 13-17, 1998

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED419218

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Adolescents; Children; Conflict Resolution; Elementary Secondary Education; Interpersonal Communication; Interpersonal Competence; Mediation Theory; Peer Counseling; Problem Solving

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Socially competent children have been found to be effective negotiators, typically selecting more adaptive, non-physical strategies for resolving conflicts with peers. To explore this association, background information involving research with children's social strategies is presented. The research is part of a larger study concerning school-based peer-mediation. Of 112 4th-8th grade students in a bicultural school community, 62 were selected and trained to mediate the disputes of their peers on the playground. Another 50 students served as a comparison group for evaluation. The 50 nonmediators were aware of the program and sometimes participated as disputants in mediations on the playground. Training was assisted by the Arizona Attorney General's Office of Community Relations and the interval between pre- and post intervention was six months. Ninety-eight students responded to the conflict strategy survey, "Problem-Solving Scenarios." Results show that mediation training and practice seem to have the effect of encouraging independent interpersonal problem-solving. The Problem Solving Scenarios conflict survey is included in the report. (MKA)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 351

Author: Lanham, Karyn; Baker, Debra

Year: 1997

Title: Improving Student Behaviors through the Use of Conflict Resolution in Fifth and Eighth Grades.

University: Saint Xavier University and IRI/Skylight.

Number of Pages: 48

Type of Work: Master's Action Research Project

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED415023

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Action Research; Behavior Change; Change Strategies; Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Grade 5; Grade 8; Interpersonal Relationship; Problem Solving; Program Evaluation; Student Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Character Education

Abstract: ABSTRACT: This action research project implemented and evaluated a 10-week conflict resolution program to improve the behavior of fifth- and eighth-grade students. Participating were eighth graders from a large suburban school district with a diverse socioeconomic background, and fifth graders from a growing suburban school district with a high mobility rate. The problems of inappropriate behaviors for resolving personal conflicts were documented through discipline referrals, teacher journal entries, teacher surveys, and student self-assessment. The solution strategies were comprised of cooperative learning groups, conflict resolution training, and character education activities conducted for 25 to 45 minutes each day for 3 or 5 days per week. Activities were related to building trust of other group members, developing social skills, solving problems, resolving conflict, and Expressing feelings. Post-intervention results indicated that teaching skills conducive to appropriate behaviors for resolving personal conflict decreased the number of negative behaviors displayed in the classroom, such as loud or abusive language and lack of respect for others. Discipline referrals declined throughout the intervention Period. Student assessments revealed a decrease in all negative responses to conflict and an increase in nonviolent responses. (Fourteen appendices include data collection instruments and sample learning activities. Contains 14 references.) (KB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 275

Author: Leal, R.

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: The Next Generation of Campus Mediation Programs

Conference Name: Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution

Conference Location: San Antonio, TX

Date: August 1993

Notes: Reference from D. Crawford

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 276

Author: Leal, R.; Hollis, P.; Cole, D.

Year of Conference: 1996

Title: A Collaborative School-University Mediation Program

Conference Name: Second Annual Alternatives to Violence Conference

Conference Location: Sam Houston University, Galveston, TX

Date: April 1996

Notes: Reference from D.Crawford

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 277

Author: LeBlanc, P. R.

Year: 1996

Title: Report to the Palm Beach County School Board on the conflict resolution program: Two case studies of the impact of conflict resolution in the classroom

City: West Palm Beach, FL

Institution: Safe Schools Center

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 278

Author: LeBlanc, P.; Lacey, C. ; Mulder, R

Year: 1998

Title: Conflict Resolution: a case study of one high school class's experience

Journal: Journal for Just and Caring Education 4(2): 224-244

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 352

Author: LeBoeuf, Donni; Delany-Shabazz, Robin V.

Year: 1997

Title: Conflict Resolution. Fact Sheet #55.

City: Washington, DC

Institution: Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Pages: 4

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED416301

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: At Risk Persons; Conflict Resolution; Delinquency; Elementary Secondary Education; Integrated Activities; Program Development; Program Implementation; School Safety; Urban Youth; Violence; Youth Programs

IDENTIFIERS: Peace Education; Peer Mediation

Abstract: ABSTRACT: By teaching young people how to manage conflict, conflict resolution education can reduce juvenile violence in juvenile facilities, schools, and communities, while providing lifelong decision-making skills. Conflict resolution programs also combat chronic truancy and reduce the number of suspensions and disciplinary referrals. Their potential for use in urban schools and youth programs is obvious. Conflict resolution programs are most effective when they involve the entire facility or school community, are integrated into institutional management practices and the educational curriculum, and are linked to family and community mediation initiatives. There are four general approaches to conflict resolution education: (1) process curriculum, in which conflict resolution is taught as a distinct lesson or course; (2) peer mediation, in which trained youth mediators work with peers to find solutions; (3) peaceable classroom and peaceable school methodologies that involve the whole educational environment; and (4) conflict resolution programs in nonschool settings, such as youth clubs or community centers. Community centers, usually found in urban areas, often collaborate with law enforcement agencies and other youth-serving agencies to present integrated programs. (SLD)

Notes: ERIC

URL: http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/fs-9755.pdf

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 68

Author: Lein, Laura

Year: 1992

Title: Children and Child-Serving Institutions: Learning Adversarial Behavior

Institution: Center for Research on Dispute Resolution

Type: research report

Keywords: parent-school relations

Abstract: This paper reports on the incomplete findings from observation of an elementary school that serves a large public housing project. The focus of the research is on the relationship of families with the school. 200 household interviews have been conducted to explore the following: 1) Accounts of recent specific interactions with the school; 2) Attitudes of parents and children toward the school; 3) History of family relationships with the school; and 4) Status of all children in the family in relationship to the school. The observation was conducted in a range of settings, including classrooms, the counselor's office, parent's meetings, the main office, among others, to provide comprehensive case histories of exchanges between families and the school.

Conclusions: Based on these observations, it was concluded that: 1) Many altercations between families and schools are based on crisis situations in households such as abandonment, food shortages, lack of medical care, and abuse; 2) School faculty and staff often blame the parents for their children's problems; 3) Overall, parents have a positive and supportive attitude toward the school; 4) Conflicts between parents and schools often center on serious charges and counter-charges; 5) Parents are generally responsive to the opportunity to participate in school-based educational programs; 6) The obligation of the school to report families to Child Protective Services because of abuse or neglect can create a strain in the relationship between parents and schools. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 279

Author: Lein, Laura; Shannon, Laura; Smith, Pamela; Burtner, Jennifer

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Discipline and (Em)power: the group politics and process of school-based institutional outreach programs in a southwestern community

Editor: Boskey, James B.; McCabe, Douglas M.

Conference Name: Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution 21st Annual International Conference: Seeking Common Ground

Conference Location: Toronto, Ontario

Publisher: Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution

Pages: 295-310

Keywords: Parent involvement

Abstract: In this presentation/paper the authors, from the Department of Anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin, "examine how teachers and students in one Southwestern community use various discursive strategies to 1) establish themselves as responsible caretakers and 2) reproduce the attitudinal barriers which can inhibit communication and power sharing in the public (school) and the private (home) sphere." Research made possible by a grant from The Fund for Research on Dispute Resolution.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 69

Author: Lepley, William L.

Year: 1991

Title: Conflict Resolution in Iowa Schools

Institution: Iowa Department of Education and The Iowa Peace Institute

Pages: 31 plus appendices

Date: January 1991

Type: report of survey of school-based conflict resolution programs

Abstract: Survey results: Around 25 schools have programs involving the entire school; almost 4/5 have adopted the conflict manager approach (The Community Board Program, Inc.) Four schools use the Peace Works approach. Four other schools use Johnson & Johnson Creative Conflict and Children's Creative Response to Conflict in classroom instruction. At least four other schools are presently planning programs. At least 740 students across Iowa have been trained as conflict managers (mediators), approximately 500 at the elementary level, 180 at the middle school level and 60 at the high school level. Well over 5000 students on all levels, however, have been exposed to some skills training, with over Ĺ of these being elementary students. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 70

Author: Levy, J.

Year: 1989

Title: Conflict resolution in elementary and secondary education

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 7(1): 73-87

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 166

Author: LINK, KATHLEEN ELIZABETH BARBIERI

Year: 1998

Title: PEER MEDIATION: AN EMPIRICAL EXPLORATION EMPOWERING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS CONSTRUCTIVELY

University: UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS

Adviser: TIPPS, STEVEN

Number of Pages: 101

Type of Work: Dissertation, EDD

Accession Number: AAT 9841437

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519); EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)

Abstract: The focus of this study was to identify and develop techniques and strategies that enable children to deal constructively with conflict. This study assessed what effects peer mediation training and mediation experience had on student mediators. The pretest-posttest, control-group, and quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of a peer mediation program implemented in two suburban elementary schools. The diverse population of students participated in three weeks of peer mediation training followed by eight months of experience in mediating conflicts. Effects of peer mediation training and mediation experience on mediators' self-control, self-concept, and locus of control were examined. Further investigation studied the effects of the peer mediation program for mediators who were considered to be 'disruptive' students. Offices referrals were divided into two groups, peer mediators and not peer mediators to investigate the relationship between being a peer mediator and the number of conflicts referred to school administrators. The percentage of mutually satisfying conflict resolutions was also determined. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection were utilized in this study to determine changes in self control, self concept, and locus of control of peer mediators. Semistructured interviews were conducted and coded to reveal similarities, differences, and anomalies. The personal and social adjustment of students were assessed by the Index of Personality Characteristics (IPC) and The Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ), 1985. The IPC measured perception of self and others, acting in and out, and internal and external locus of control. The Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ), 1985 Edition, measured changes in personality traits of mediators.

Results: Findings of this study revealed that students involved in the peer mediation program benefited from both peer mediation training and the experience of being a peer mediator. Statistically significant increases in self control, self concept, and locus of control were discovered for children who were involved in peer mediation training and mediation experience when compared to similar children at another school. Positive effects of the peer mediation program were also detected when comparing peer mediators to a comparison group at their same school. Peer mediators who had been identified as disruptive showed even larger increases in self control, self concept, and locus of control. These students appeared to have benefited particularly in their locus of control. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/07, p. 2326, Jan 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 353

Author: Lockwood, Daniel

Year: 1997

Title: Violence among Middle School and High School Students: Analysis and Implications for Prevention. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

City: District of Columbia

Institution: Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

Pages: 13

Report Number: NCJ-166363

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED419040

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Curriculum Development; High Risk Students; High School Students; High Schools; Incidence; Intermediate Grades; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Minority Groups; Prevention; School Safety; Values; Victims of Crime; Violence

IDENTIFIERS: Middle School Students

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Violent incidents among at-risk middle school and high school students are discussed. The type and frequency of these incidents are identified, but the focus is on factors such as the relationship among the antagonists, the sequence of events and escalations, and the goals and justifications cited by the students. Information is drawn from in-depth interviews with 110 students from public schools at which the level of violence is high. The 110 students, 86 of whom were African Americans, reported 250 incidents of violence. Data show that the problem of violence is growing, as is juveniles' risk of victimization. The design of this study was chosen to provide information that can be used in the curricula of school-based conflict resolution programs. In the

largest proportion of incidents, the first step was relatively minor, but escalated. About 5% eventually involved a gun. Most incidents took place among young people who knew each other, and most incidents started in the school or the home. The most common goal was retribution, followed by an attempt to bring about compliance, and self defense or defense of one's image, and justifications offered stemmed from a value system in which violence was acceptable. In adopting the findings to violence prevention programs, reducing the frequency of opening moves may be the most promising approach. (Contains five exhibits.) (SLD)

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: National Criminal Justice Reference Service, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000; telephone: 800-851-3420; e-mail: askncjrs@ncjrs.org

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 280

Author: Long, Jennie J.; Fabricius, William V.; Musheno, Michael; Palumbo, Dennis

Year: 1998

Title: Exploring the Cognitive and Affective Capacities of Child Mediators in a "Successful" Inner-City Peer Mediation Program

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 15(4): 289-302

Abstract: "Our research questions whether young children, regardless of their location in the urban landscape, have the cognitive capacities to use the problem-solving technology of mediation. Moreover, it challenges the claim that hostile aggression of inner-city youths increases with age. ... Rather than only promoting mediation technology, we encourage elementary and middle schools to also create discursive space for verbal interaction." From Author's abstract.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 167

Author: LUPTON-SMITH, HELEN SHULMAN

Year: 1996

Title: THE EFFECTS OF A PEER MEDIATION TRAINING PROGRAM ON HIGH SCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, MEDIATION, CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Director: EDWIN R. GERLER

Number of Pages: 130

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9617779

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; HEALTH SCIENCES, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT; PSYCHOLOGY, DEVELOPMENTAL

Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a peer mediation training program on high school students serving as trainers and elementary students who received the training. The training program was a deliberate psychological education intervention with a cognitive developmental theoretical foundation. The objective of the intervention was to provide a growth enhancing experience for the high school student trainers as well as instill the elementary students with mediation skills. The independent variable of the investigation included he mediation training curriculum for both the high school and elementary school groups. The dependent variables for the high school students were: (1) moral reasoning as measured by the Defining Issues Test and (2) ego development as measured by the Washington Sentence Completion Test. The Social Skills Rating System, a self-report measure of cooperation, assertiveness, empathy, and self-control, served as the dependent variable for the elementary students. The study included a primary and secondary research design. A variation of the nonequivalent control group design was used to compare the high school trainer experimental group with two comparison groups of high school students involved in peer helping activities. The experimental group was predicted to demonstrate more positive results on moral and ego development measures than the two comparison groups as a result of the intervention. The second design includes the group of elementary student mediators who were administered the Social Skills Rating System on a pre and post basis. This one group pretest-posttest design with its limitations will be addressed further in the dissertation. These students were expected to show pre to post-test improvement.

Results: Statistical analysis (T-Tests and an ANOVA) on the high school groups did not indicate any significant differences between groups on the moral or ego development instruments. All groups slightly increased on the moral assessment and declined on the ego measure. T-Tests examining pretest to posttest scores on the elementary school measure found a significant increase in the area of self-control. Despite some limitations, the significance of this study in connecting the issue of juvenile violence to a cognitive developmental framework is discussed. Programmatic, research, and theoretical implications for both cognitive developmental theory and violence prevention are addressed. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-02A, Page 0589, 00130 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 281

Author: Malek, Marvin K; Chang, Bei-Hung; Davis, Terry C

Year: 1998

Title: Self-Reported Characterization of Seventh-Grade Students' Fights

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health 23( 2): 103-109

Call Number: Sociological Abstracts 9910588

#1101

ISSN 1054-139X

Abstract: Abstract Determines the characteristics of recent fights among seventh-grade students at public middle schools in Shreveport, LA, & Boston & Winchester, MA, using self-administered two-part questionnaire data collected in May or Oct 1991 from 289 students who had participated in fights during the previous 6 months. Pearson Chi-square test analysis revealed that one or more weapons were present at 43% of the fights, weapons were used to threaten or injure in 23%, & stab or gunshot wounds were reported in 10%. Fights with five or more participants or with participants who were intoxicated or gang members involved more weapon use & more severe injury. There was more frequent weapon use away from home & school. Spectators were present at 87% of the fights, & when they attempted to mediate or end the fighting, injury severity was lower. Students who often carried a weapon were much more likely to report involvement in fights in which weapons were used & to suffer more severe injuries. Fights frequently involved the threat & actual use of weapons. The large number of participants & spectators at many of the fights with the most severely injurious outcomes implies that social factors, not just poor conflict resolution skills, are important factors precipitating fights. 7 Tables, 24 References. Adapted from the source document.

Descriptors: *Violence (D905400); *Junior High School Students (D425650); *Weapons (D914400); *Injuries (D398100); Louisiana (D474600); Boston, Massachusetts (D091200); Massachusetts (D498300)

Classification: the family and socialization; adolescence & youth; studies in violence; studies in violence

Notes: Author Affiliation: Dept. of Pediatrics, LSUMC-S, PO Box 33932, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 168

Author: MARSHALL, ALBERT JULIUS, III

Year: 1984

Title: MEDIATION ESSAYS VS. TIME OUT: BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PLAYGROUNDS (RECESS, COGNITIVE, OBSERVATION)

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

Number of Pages: 146

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG8428269

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the value of mediation essays in reducing problem playground behaviors. Mediation essays, developed by Blackwood (1979), are a series of questions and answers relating to inappropriate and appropriate behavior alternatives. The essays have been prepared in advance for children to copy when they have misbehaved. Blackwood's theory and some limited research suggest that children who copy the mediation essays learn associations between behaviors and consequences that help mediate the choice of a positive behavior. These essays offer the promise of a constructive and easily administered approach to managing serious behavior problems. The mediation essays were compared with a time out treatment in the reduction of "physical aggression," "negative interaction with adults" and "failure to comply with directions." Playground supervisors were trained to record disciplinary encounters and to classify the target behaviors reliably. The upper elementary children from four midwestern public schools participated in this 8-week study. A 2-week baseline preceded a 4-week treatment and 2-week no treatment follow-up (A-B-A design) with two schools assigned to each intervention. Trained observers coded behavior daily using 6-second intervals and a sampling procedure. Lunchroom personnel supervised the essay copying, while the playground supervisors sent misbehaving children to a designated area on the playground for a 5-minute time out. Results: The results of the mediation essays treatment were positive in reducing physical aggression and other serious playground behaviors. Both mediation essays schools had lower rates of target behaviors during the treatment and follow-up phases. The time-out schools also experienced decreases in the number of disciplinary encounters, but only one of the time out schools appeared to show decreases in the rates of target behaviors in the observation data. Conclusions were suggested, and the results support further study and use of the essays and time out treatments in unstructured situations. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 45-09A, Page 2807, 00146 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 71

Author: Mathur, S.R.; Rutherford, R.B., Jr.

Year: 1991

Title: Peer-mediated interventions promoting social skills of children and youth with behavioral disorders

Journal: Education and Treatment of Children 14(3): 227-242

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 72

Author: Maxwell, J. P.

Year: 1989

Title: Mediation in the schools: self regulation, self-esteem, and self-discipline

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 7(2): 148-155

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 73

Author: McCormick, M. Melissa

Year of Conference: 1988

Title: Evaluation of the Wakefield Pilot Peer-Mediation Program

Editor: Kestner, Prudence

Conference Name: National Conference on Education and Mediation

Conference Location: Washington, DC

Publisher: American Bar Association Standing Committee on Dispute Resolution

Pages: 263-273

Edition: Education & Mediation 1988: Exploring the Alternatives

Date: April 1988

Keywords: peer mediation

Notes: M. Melissa McCormick's contact info in 1988: Research Assistant, The University of Arizona, Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology, DEpartment of Anthropology, Tucson, Arizona 85721

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 169

Author: MCFARLAND, WILLIAM PATRICK

Year: 1988

Title: THE EFFECT OF A DEVELOPED INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM AND GENDER ON THREE SELF-REPORTED CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES OF ELEVENTH-GRADE VOCATIONAL STUDENTS:

University: INDIANA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

ADVISER: Chairman: WILLIAM CULP

Number of Pages: 227

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG8822349

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether participation in a developed interpersonal communication skills training program and gender had a significant effect on the self-reported conflict resolution styles of eleventh grade vocational students. Specifically, the study measured the interactional effect of training and gender on the three conflict resolution scales of the Organizational Conflict Communication Instrument. A trained group consisted of 49 students, 27 males and 22 females. The trained group received a 13 hour, four week training program in interpersonal communication skills. The nontrained group consisted of 50 students, 29 males and 21 females, and received no interpersonal communication skills training. Both the trained group and nontrained group were administered the three scales of the Organizational Conflict Communication Instrument (OCCI) after the training program was completed. The data were analyzed using three 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance which determined the main and interactive effects of the two independent variables, Training and Gender, on the three dependent scores from the control scale, the nonconfrontation scale, and the solution-orientation scale of the OCCI. The data were analyzed for a.05 statistical significance level using the SPSS-X computer program.

Results: Analysis of the data showed that subjects receiving the interpersonal communication skills training program did not obtain significantly different scores on the control, nonconfrontation, and solution-orientation scales from the nontrained subjects. When analyzing the main effect of gender, females obtained a statistically significant lower score, meaning more frequent use, on the solution-orientation scale than males. When analyzing the interaction effect of Training and Gender, trained females obtained a statistically significant lower score, meaning more frequent use, than nontrained females on the nonconfrontation scale of the OCCI. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 49-08A, Page 2114, 00227 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 282

Author: Mei, L.

Year: 1993

Title: Comprehensive Conflict Resolution Training Program

City: New York

Institution: Office of Educational Research, Board of Education of the City of New York

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 74

Author: Metis Associates, Inc.

Year: 1988

Title: The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: Summary of Significant Findings

City: New York, NY

Institution: Metis Associates, Inc.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 75

Author: Metis Associates, Inc.

Year: 1990

Title: The resolving conflict creatively program: 1988-1989 summary of significant findings

City: New York, NY

Institution: Metis Associates, Inc.

Date: May 1990

Abstract: Metis Associates, Inc. was contracted by Community School District 15, the New York City Chapter of Educators for Social Responsibility (ESR), and Community School Districts 2, 27 and 75 to assess the impact of the RCCP on participating students, staff, and administrators. The following methods of data collection were used in the assessment: 1) An extensive survey completed by 130 teachers who participated in the RCCP; 2) A brief questionnaire completed by administrators from each participating school; and 3) Written standard achievement tests administered to 176 participating students (prior to and following their participation) and 219 non-participating students. In addition, data was collected regarding peer mediation programs within the RCCP, using brief surveys of teachers and school-based program personnel as well as 143 surveys completed by student mediators.

Analysis: The paper provides in-depth statistics and discussion of the findings, which were related to the following areas: 1) Implementation of core components of the RCCP (teacher training and classroom curriculum implementation), including staff training, support provided by staff development consultants, and curriculum; 2) Impact of the core components of the RCCP on participating students, including attitudinal and behavioral changes among participating students and students' mastery of concepts related to conflict resolution; 3) Impact of the program on participating teachers; 4) Impact of the program on class/school climate; and 5) Implementation and impact of the student mediation program.

General conclusions were that participants' assessment of the RCCP and its related projects were extremely positive, that there is an observable positive impact on the classroom and school climates, that the behaviors and attitudes of participating children were positively effected by the RCCP, and that the mediation programs have been successful in fostering more peaceful class and school environments.

Recommendations: Suggested improvements were identified as: 1) More staff development time, training sessions, and support from staff developers for teachers to integrate conflict resolution concepts; 2) Increased amount of parent involvement; and 3) Expansion of the RCCP within each school to encourage the ideas of peace and cooperation at a school-wide level. MS/MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 76

Author: Metis Associates

Year: 1996

Title: Children's Creative Response to Conflict (CCRC) Program: PS 230

Institution: Children's Creative Response to Conflict

Pages: 11

Date: January 1996

Type: evaluation report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training

peer mediation

Abstract: This report supplements an earlier evaluation report of the CCRC Program at PS 230 in Community School District 15. It provides analyses of data collected from two instruments: a locally-developed teacher survey and a modified version of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The staff training component included introductory training sessions, work with staff developers and curriculum implementation - over 90% of respondents rated each of them with strongly agree or agree ratings on five point scale. Other measures included Rating of Teacher Trainers; Rating of Teacher Trainers; Rating of Staff Developers; Implementation of Curriculum Units; Program Impact on Participating Teachers; and Teachers Perceptions of Program Impact on Participating Students. Coopersmith Inventory measures reported included positive responses to the following categories: General Self Category; Social Self - Peers Category; Home - Parents Category; and School - Academics Category. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 77

Author: Metis Associates Inc.

Year: 1998

Title: Atlanta Public Schools Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: Summary of the Final Evaluation Report 1996-1997

City: Atlanta, GA

Pages: 17 + Appendices

Date: June 1998

Type: evaluation report, final report, program evaluation report, project evaluation report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, parents, social and emotional learning, students, teachers

Abstract: The RCCP program model includes five components: professional development for teachers - intensive introductory course and ongoing classroom support; regular classroom instruction for K-12 students; peer mediation; training in concepts and skills of conflict resolution and bias awareness for administrators and support staff; "Peace in the Family " workshops for parents. The Atlanta project involved five pilot sites: 3 elementary schools, 1 middle school, 1 high school chosen primarily because of their location in traditionally under-served communities. The elementary schools feed into the middle school, which feeds into the high school. An evaluation steering committee worked with evaluators using a self-evaluation approach including qualitative and qualitative methods to assess programs.

Findings in the report are organized into two areas: implementation - infusion of curriculum and participants' perceptions; and impact. Impact-related data was derived for various respondent groups: general student populations; student mediators; students' attitudes and behaviors observed by teachers; changes in students' attitudes and behaviors observed by parents; impact on students as measure by existing administrative data; impact on staff; impact on parents. In general, RCCP had a positive impact on program participants: students, staff and parents report less fighting; students have increased self-esteem, improved abilities/willingness to help others and taken on greater responsibility for handling own conflicts; existing administrative data revealed improvements in course failure, dropout, student attendance, and in- and out-of-school suspension rates; staff and parents report enhanced communication skills and more appreciation of diversity; teachers' attendance rates at the pilot elementary schools showed a dramatic improvement during the period of program intervention. MB

Notes: +Metis Associates Inc., 80 Broad Street Suite 1600, New York, NY 10004-2209, 212-425-8833; RCCP National Center, 40 Exchange Place, Suite 1111, New York NY 10005, 202-509-0022, e-mail ESRRCCP@aol.com

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 170

Author: MEYER, REBECCA HOSTETTER

Year: 1995

Title: THE EFFECT OF PARTICIPATION IN A PEER MEDIATION PROGRAM ON THE PERCEPTIONS AND CONFLICT STYLE OF AT-RISK ELEMENTARY STUDENTS

University: THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: EDWIN L. HERR

Number of Pages: 174

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAI9600221

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of participation in a peer mediation program on the self-perceptions and conflict style of behaviorally at-risk elementary students. A pretest/posttest control group design with matching was utilized with a total of 98 fourth, fifth and sixth grade subjects. Nine research questions were examined. Instrumentation consisted of the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Social Support Scale for Children, an adapted version of the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a Mediator Questionnaire, and School Principal Interview. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance for repeated measures, and chi-square. Results: Findings of the study revealed that at pretest time, both control and treatment groups had moderately high scores on the global self-worth subscale and moderate scores on the behavioral conduct subscale of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Scores were moderately high on the Social Support Scale for Children. No significant differences between control and treatment groups were found on global self-worth, behavioral conduct or social support subscales at posttest time. The mediators reported improved behavior on the Mediator Questionnaire at a higher rate than on the Self-Perception Profile for Children--69 percent and 43 percent respectively. No significant differences in conflict style between the treatment and control groups were found on the adapted version of the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. However, over 60 percent of both groups reduced the number of visits to the principal's office for the discussion of inappropriate behavior, raising the question of how much the alternative method of resolving conflict through the peer mediation program contributed to changing conflict style. The study found that subjects who placed importance on behavior had greater success in improving behavior regardless of their affiliation with the treatment or control group.

Conclusions: Conclusions from the study indicated that behaviorally at-risk elementary children had leadership abilities that were beneficial to the school's peer mediation program. The theory of multidimensionality of self-perceptions was supported by group data from the subjects indicating generally high self-worth, with the lowest scores falling in behavioral conduct, the domain which defined them as at-risk prior to the study. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-09A, Page 3457, 00174 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 78

Author: Mild, R.E. Jr.

Year of Conference: 1990

Title: An analysis of conflict management in grades 3 through 8

Conference Name: Speech Communication Association Convention

Conference Location: Chicago, IL

Date: November 1990

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 171

Author: MILLARD, JANICE L.

Year: 1994

Title: EVALUATION OF AN ADOLESCENT MORAL DEVELOPMENT, SELF-ESTEEM, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS PROGRAM

University: UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON

Chairperson: JOHN GAA

Number of Pages: 136

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9507557

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program for designing an intervention in adolescent moral development targeting the middle school students at a private not-for-profit alternative school for students grades six through twelve. The program was designed to impact three facets of adolescent development: the affective facet of self-esteem, the cognitive facet of moral reasoning, and the behavioral facet of conflict resolution skills. Individual participants in one or more of the activities were considered as subjects, including students, teachers, and administrators. All subjects were Caucasian, English-speaking, and of mid to upper socioeconomic status. The age range of the students was from 12 to 16 years, and all students were academically competent in the college preparatory curriculum. One-half of the students were on medication for either attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, or bipolar disorder. Three groups of activities were incorporated into the program. The first activity involved the students, the faculty, and the administration participating together in two outdoor challenge courses with emphasis being given to the full value contract requirements of working together as a group, honoring the safety of each person, respecting equally all participants, willingly giving and receiving feedback, and placing positive value on the ideas of all individuals. In the second activity, all subjects participated in at least one weekly therapeutic horseback riding session with the school counselor in which emphasis was placed on increased self-esteem through growth in competencies, skill development, cooperation with peers, and connection with nature. For the third activity, all subjects met in weekly process meetings at the school facilitated by the counselor. The purpose of these meetings was to promote the generalization of skills, attitudes, and behaviors from the outdoor challenge courses and the horseback riding sessions to the school environment; to acquaint subjects with the specifics of moral development theories; and to teach specific conflict resolution skills. The evaluation procedure involved the multi-attribute measurement of the decision theoretic approach to qualitative research of Edwards, Guttentag, and Snapper (1975). At the beginning of the program evaluation, three groups of interest--students, faculty, and administrators--met separately to determine each group's goals for the program. After the goals were specified, each group first ranked their goals in order of importance, assigned weightings to the goals, and then determined relative weightings for each goal. In this step, the formula used was relative weighting (percentage) equals weight divided by sum of weights. The final group task involved determining behavioral assessment criteria for each goal. After the intervention, each group met separately, and each subject completed a rating scale reflecting their perceived percentage of achievement for each goal.

Results: The activities which were related to the highest ranking goals and which had the highest degrees of goal attainment served as the basis for planning and funding for the next year. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-10A, Page 3094, 00136 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Newspaper Article

Record Number: 283

Reporter: Miller, D. W.

Year: 1999

Title: The Black Hole of Education Research: Why do academic studies play such a minimal role in efforts to improve the schools?

Newspaper: The Chronicle of Higher Education

Pages: A17-A18

Issue Date: August 6, 1999

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 354

Author: Mitchell, James M.

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: The Imaginitis Learning System Conflict Resolution Unit in an Urban School District

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Chicago, IL

Pages: 14

Date: March 24-28, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED406508

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Adult Education; Books; Communication Skills; Conflict Resolution; Cooperative Learning; Curriculum Development; Elementary Secondary Education; Portfolio Assessment; Portfolios (Background Materials); Program Evaluation; Urban Schools; Violence

IDENTIFIERS: Authentic Assessment

Abstract: ABSTRACT: The Imaginitis Learning System is an integrated product development curriculum that is aimed at achieving stronger cooperation and conflict resolution skills among students who use it at elementary through adult education levels. It is a performance-based instruction product in which students learn to apply communication skills and work competencies in a

real-life context. It attempts to offer authentic assessment as students are instructed on how to publish a book that becomes a

portfolio exhibit of their learning. The developer, Imaginitis Interactive, requested that the Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota act as an ndependent outside evaluator to assess the impact of the Imaginitis system on the development of skills needed for cooperative learning and on the development of workplace competencies such

as conflict resolution. "Teaching Students To Be Peacemakers" by D. and R. Johnson was the project learning framework. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the conflict resolution program in self-contained classrooms in the District of Columbia at grades 3/4, 7, and 11/12. At all levels of implementation and evaluation Imaginitis was determined to contribute to the development of conflict resolution skills. Statistically significant findings show that Imaginitis students develop a stronger ability to resolve conflicts in a nonviolent manner. (Contains two tables and six references.) (SLD)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 79

Author: Moore, Melanie; Wong, Pia; McLaughlin, Milbrey

Year: 1995

Title: Evaluation of Phase 1of the Whole School Conflict Resolution Project

City: San Francisco, CA

Institution: School of Education, Stanford University

Pages: 24

Date: 1995

Type: final report

Keywords: peer education, peer mediation

Abstract: From the executive summary: "The Project is a result of a partnership between the San Francisco Peer Resource Programs (Peers) and the Community Board Program of San Francisco... These organizations share the common goals of ensuring students' safety, promoting an environment conducive to student learning, and promoting the principles and practices of conflict resolution...A six-step action plan, including organizing a core team of implementers at each school, training adults and students as conflict mediators, infusing each school with a conflict resolution curriculum and providing workshops for parents and community mediation forums, was designed to work towards the program's overall goals..." One goal was to "Foster a safe and supportive climate where student and adult learning can thrive free from personal, racial and cultural conflicts.".. " The first full year of implementation at the three pilot high schools was an overall success, with significant progress being made on several of the Project's major objectives." MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 80

Author: Moore, Melanie; Thorpe, Victoria

Year: 1996

Title: Using Conflict Resolution for Whole School Change: An Evaluation of Year Two of the Whole School Conflict Resolution Project.

City: San Francisco, CA

Institution: Urban Apprentices

Pages: 36

Date: August, 1996

Type: program evaluation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 284

Author: Moriarty, Anthony; McDonald, S.

Year: 1991

Title: Theoretical Dimensions of School-Based Mediation

Journal: Social Work in Education 13(3): 176-184

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 172

Author: MUEHLRATH, KATHRYN LEE

Year: 1996

Title: THE EFFECT OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAMS IN REVENTING DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS OF STUDENTS IN GRADES NINE THROUGH TWELVE IN A SUBURBAN SCHOOL DISTRICT

University: SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY

Adviser: WILLIAM T. REBORE

Number of Pages: 110

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9638883

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: Problem. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of conflict resolution management training programs in preventing discipline problems of students in grades nine through twelve in two high schools. Methodology. The researcher investigated the perceptions of 180 certified teachers regarding knowledge and usage of the Jenkins Conflict Resolution Management Problem model. Twelve administrators and faculty sponsors were also asked to provide information pertaining to their knowledge of the program model and the impact of the model usage in preventing discipline problems in requiring formal discipline interventions. Respondents were requested to complete a questionnaire designed by the investigator. Archival student suspension records from each school were also obtained. Specific data collected included the number of students enrolled, percentage suspended and the individual behavior standard violated.

Results: The results of the teacher questionnaires indicate that conflict resolution management programs have been operational longer at school B, was better known by their teachers and was perceived as more successful in reducing conflict. Administrators and faculty sponsors from school B did not respond sufficiently to provide data regarding their perceptions of conflict resolution management programs to determine the effectiveness of said programs. School A's teachers were not as familiar with the Jenkins model of conflict resolution management program. Administrators and faculty sponsors reported that the conflict resolution management program was successful. Two hundred and thirty-seven students were trained as mediators. Females used conflict resolution management skills and techniques more than males and students in grades nine and ten used conflict resolution skills and techniques more than students in grades 11 and 12. School A also reported 350 successful mediations. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-07A, Page 2956, 00110 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 81

Author: Nakkula, Michael, Ed.D.; Christina Nikitopoulos, Ed.M.

Year: 1996

Title: Preliminary Evaluation Findings for the Fall 1995 Implementation of the Program for Young Negotiators

Institution: Harvard Graduate School of Education

Date: May 7, 1996

Type: program evaluation

Keywords: negotiation

Abstract: Purpose: This report represents the most substantial evidence to date that the Program for Young Negotiators (PYN), a ten-module negotiation program designed for early adolescents, is leading to important change for its participants.

Methodology: Since it's inception, the Harvard Evaluation Team has been assessing the program's effectiveness on a range of levels: curriculum development, teacher training, relationship-building with school staff, teacher effectiveness in delivering the curriculum and student out come. This report provides statistical findings that support some of the results.

Findings: The Five-Factor Negotiation Survey developed to measure student-reported attitudes and behavior includes the factors of Self Confidence, Compromise, Communication, Collaboration, Conflict Resolution. A finding of improvement in negotiation was a result of dramatic change in the Conflict Resolution factor indicating that students are much more likely to report using verbal approaches rather than physical fighting to resolve conflicts. A second finding that students participating in the PYN were much less likely to have a serious report filed on them than students not participating in the program, even though the PYN participants were considered a higher-risk group for violent behavior. Findings are preliminary, but there is a great deal of converging data which suggests that PYN graduates are more likely to talk their way through problems, and less likely to engage in aggressive conflicts. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 82

Author: Nakkula, Michael, Ed.D. ; Christina Nikitopoulos, Ed.M

Year: 1998

Title: Program for Young Negotiators Independent Evaluation Report

City: Cambridge, MA

Institution: Harvard University, Graduate School of Education, Human Development and Psychology

Pages: 5

Date: April, 1998

Type: program evaluation report

Keywords: negotiation

Abstract: From the Executive Summary:

Methodology: Report findings are derived from the Five Factor Negotiation Scale (FFNS), developed by the evaluation team in 1995, to assess which aspects of negotiation training are most useful and teachable to middle school students. The five factors include: self-confidence, cooperation, communication skills, compromise - the ability to give something in order to receive something, and conflict resolution strategies - verbal versus physical strategies. 380 students in three Boston middle schools participated in the pre-test and post-test phases of the evaluation.

Summary of 1996-96 Findings:

o PYN is working well in the accomplishment of its core mission. (Mission statement: "The PYN aims to build the capacity of young people, their teachers, and other mentors to use negotiation skills as a powerful means of achieving their goals.")

o Evaluation findings show statistically significant change at all participating schools, while areas of change varied markedly from school to school or classroom to classroom. This suggests that differing teaching approaches lead to different beneficial outcomes.

o Student in all participating schools demonstrate a much higher ability to compromise or bargain following participation in PYN.

o A significant number of students show an increase in self-confidence and compromise/bargaining ability.

o Differences between the genders were striking within individual schools, but not consistent across all schools. Differences by gender were stronger for 7th graders than for 6th graders. Overall, boys tended to change slightly more than girls after participation in PYN. MB

Notes: +Harvard University, Graduate School of Education, Human Development and Psychology, Roy E. Larsen Hall, Appian Way, Cambridge, MA 02138

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 173

Author: NANCE, TERESA MARIE

Year: 1995

Title: IMPACT OF THE PEER MEDIATION COMPONENT OF THE NEW MEXICO CENTER FOR DISPUTE RESOLUTION MEDIATION IN THE SCHOOLS PROGRAM

Academic Dept.: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO

Adviser: JANICE D. MARTIN

Number of Pages: 136

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9544369

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

Abstract: The present study considered the differences between peer mediators and non-peer mediators as measured by the Conflict Resolution Achievement Test with Coping Questionnaire developed to examine the students' coping skills and knowledge of conflict resolution and mediation. Eighty-nine pairs of fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students matched by school, conflict resolution achievement pre-test score, gender, grade, and socio-economic status were evaluated. Each pair consisted of a peer mediator, selected by classmates and the teacher, and a non-peer mediator. Matching was used to control for initial differences that might have existed between the groups since random assignment was not possible.

Results: Results indicated the Conflict Resolution Achievement Test with Coping Questionnaire had acceptable reliability (ge.80), the factor loadings for each item on the five coping scales were adequate (ge.35), and each coping scales alpha was poor to good. Overall, the test was found to be acceptable for the current study. Peer mediators and non-peer mediators respond similarly to questions regarding coping skills. The five coping scales were planful problem solving, accepting responsibility, seeking social support, self-controlling, and confrontive coping. To all items on the coping questionnaire of the test the students responded they used each coping skill "a little" or "quite a bit", but not the extremes of "I did this a lot" or "I did not do this at all". This pattern of responding most likely confounded the results.

Conclusions: Findings indicated that the peer mediators' knowledge of conflict resolution and mediation significantly increased during the five months between the pre-test and the post-test, but the non-peer mediators did not. Furthermore, the peer mediators' knowledge at the time of post-testing had increased significantly more in comparison to the non-peer mediators'. The current results indicate that the peer mediators' special training and implementation of the mediation process positively effects their knowledge of conflict resolution and mediation. Implications of these findings and data concerning discipline referrals and the number of mediations completed at each school are discussed. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-09A, Page 3512, 00136 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 83

Author: National Association for Mediation in Education

Year: 1994

Title: Conflict resolution: solving conflicts without violence

City: Amherst, MA

Publisher: National Association for Mediation in Education

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 285

Author: National Center for Education Statistics

Year: 1997

Title: Campus crime and security at post-secondary education institutions.

URL: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97402.html

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 84

Author: National Center for Education Statistics

Year: 1998

Title: Violence and Discipline Problems in U.S. Public Schools: 1996-1997

City: Washington, D.C.

Institution: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement

Pages: 122 plus Appendix

Date: February, 1998

Type: analysis, survey report

Report Number: NCES 98-030

Keywords: administrators, violence prevention

Abstract: This is a report of the Principal/School Disciplinarian Survey on School Violence, 1996-97. The survey was conducted with a nationally representative sample of 1,234 regular public elementary, middle and secondary schools in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in the spring and summer of 1997. The survey requested information on four main topics: the incidence of crime and violence that occurred in public schools during the 1996-97 academic year; principals' perceptions about the seriousness of a variety of discipline issues in their schools; the types of disciplinary actions schools took against students for serious offenses; and the kinds of security measure and violence prevention programs that were in place in public schools.

Key Findings:

o More than half of U.S. public schools reported experiencing at least one crime incident in school year 1996-97, and 1 in 10 schools reported at least one serious violent crime during that school year.

o Crime and violence were more of a problem in middle and high schools than in elementary schools. Middle schools and high schools were more likely to report that they had experienced one or more incidents of any crime and one or more incidents of serious violent crime than elementary schools.

o Schools that reported serious discipline problems were more likely to have experienced one or more incidents of crime or violence, and were more likely to experience serious violent crime than those with less serious discipline problems.

o Most public schools reported having zero tolerance policies towards serious student offenses.

o Most schools reported that they employed low levels of security measures to prevent violence.

o Most schools reported having formal school violence prevention programs. 78% of schools reported having some type of formal violence-prevention or violence reduction program or effort; 50% of public schools with violence-prevention programs indicated that all or almost all of their students participated in these programs.

Regarding conflict resolution programming: Of special interest is this series of findings:

1) 1,234 public school (elementary, middle, and high schools only) principals (or school disciplinarians) were surveyed representing an estimated 77,752 schools.

2) 78% of those schools (60, 647 schools) are "... schools with formal school violence prevention or reduction programs....1997-97"

3) 64% of the schools with violence prevention programs had the following component: "Student involvement in resolving student conduct problems (e.g., dispute or conflict resolution or mediation, student court)"

This means that an estimated 38,814 schools have a program that includes student involvement in resolving student conduct problems, such as a dispute or conflict resolution or mediation, or student court program. This is 50% of the schools surveyed. Taking into account the standard errors given in the document the figures are 45% (35,180) to 55 % (42,617.87) of schools. MB

Notes: +

URL: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/violence/

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 85

Author: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control

Year: 1997

Title: Youth Violence Prevention Projects Summaries of CDC Cooperative Agreements: Community Demonstration Projects

Institution: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pages: 16

Type: summary outlines of violence prevention projects

Abstract: This document provides descriptive information on CDC violence prevention projects. For each project the following information is given: Name and location, partners, Target group; setting, description, evaluation, contact. The document is divided into two parts. Part I. Eleven specific interventions that are in their third year of funding (1993-1996): This includes descriptions of the following projects: 1. Tucson, AZ--Peace Builders; 2. New York City, New York -- Resolving Conflict Creatively; 3. Chicago and Aurora, Illinois -- Cognitive/Ecological Approach to Preventing Violence; 4. Los Angeles, California -- Attributional Bias and Reactive Aggression; 5. Richmond, Virginia -- Richmond Youth Violence Prevention Program; 6. Indianapolis, Indiana -- Conflict Resolution Computer Module; 7. Houston, Texas -- Students for Peace; 8. Detroit, Michigan -- Working Toward Peace; 9. Portland, Oregon -- System of Values; 10. Chicago, Illinois -- Mentoring and Rites of Passage; 11. Boston, Massachusetts -- Victim Counseling. Part II. Three communty demonstration projects that are funded for 5 years (1992-1997): Durham, North Carolina -- Job Training and Mentoring; Houston, Texas -- Peer Group training and Community Empowerment; New York City (Brooklyn) -- Education, Counseling, and Community Action. Many, not all, of these projects include a conflict resolution, peer mediation and/or problem-solving component. MB

Notes: +Available from CDC at 770-488-4646; see related citation, Powell, et.al.; project evaluation results and contact information available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/res-opps/ythviolc.htm

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 86

Author: National School Safety Center

Year: 1994

Title: School crime and statistical review

City: Malibu, CA

Institution: National School Safety Center

Date: May 1994

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 286

Author: Nelson, Linden

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Effects of Teaching a Problem-Solving Model for Interpersonal and International Conflict

Conference Name: The Third International Symposium on the Contributions of Psychology to Peace

Conference Location: Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA

Date: August 15-19, 1993

Keywords: higher education

teaching strategies

Abstract: Discussion of development of Problem-Solving Approach for Resolving Conflict/Conflict Resolution Strategies Checklists - generic, international conflict version, and interpersonal conflict version.

Notes: Linden L. Nelson, Psychology and Human Development Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 287

Author: Nelson, Linden L.; Golding, Natasha L.; Drews, David R.; Blazina, Mary K.

Year: 1995

Title: Teaching and Assessing Problem Solving for International Conflict Resolution

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 1(4): 399-415

Abstract: "Rationale and Methodology for teaching a problem-solving approach to international conflict resolution in college courses and for assessing the outcomes of instruction are described in this article. The Conflict Resolution Strategies Checklist was developed to evaluate students' problem solving in essays about international conflict scenarios. ... In four studies, students exposed to instruction about a prescriptive problem-solving model used more problem-solving strategies for conflict resolution at posttesting than at pretesting. Instruction about international conflict issues alone did not improve checklist scores. ... " From authors' abstract.

Notes: Nelson and Golding, California Polytechnic State University; Drews and Blazina, Juniata College. Requests for reprints should be sent to Linden L. Nelson, Psychology and Human Development Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 288

Author: Nelson, Linden L.; Christie, Daniel J.

Year: 1995

Title: Peace in the Psychology Curriculum: Moving From Assimilation to Accommodation

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 1(2): 161-178

Abstract: "Drawing primarily from Western psychology, we delineate ways in which the discipline of psychology has contributed to peace education. We then extract and amplify psychological concepts and themes relevant for teaching about peace and conflict in traditional psychology courses, an approach that fits an assimilation model. The assimilation model, although well-suited for the goal of heightening student's awareness of the psychology of peace, is not sufficiently powerful when the goal is to produce peaceful people. Accordingly, we then propose an accommodation model in which the psychology curriculum and pedagogies are fundamentally restructured to support the development of peaceful people. Central to the accommodation model is the use of peaceful pedagogies to impart values, teach social competencies related to peaceful behavior, and give students a sense of political efficacy." Authors' abstract.

Notes: Requests for reprints should be sent to Linden L. Nelson, Psychology and Human Development Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Author information: Daniel J. Christie, Ohio State University

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 174

Author: NELSON, KEITH D.

Year: 1997

Title: THE EFFECTS OF PEER MEDIATION TRAINING AND PRACTICE ON SELF-ESTEEM AND SOCIAL SKILLS AMONG PEER MEDIATORS IN A VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL

University: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY

Adviser: LESLIE SKINNER

Number of Pages: 73

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9737976

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES

Abstract: The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of a peer mediation program on the self-esteem and social skills of mediators randomly selected from student volunteers enrolled in a vocational technical high school. Peer mediation programs have been offered as an efficient means of reducing violence in schools. These programs represent one method of teaching students how to resolve conflicts peacefully. Increasingly, peer mediation programs have been touted as a means of improving social skills, bolstering self-esteem and reducing the number of disciplinary referrals among students. In this study, changes in self-esteem and social skills were assessed using standardized Instruments administered to randomly assigned volunteer participants and controls before and after the training and practice of mediation. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Social Skills Rating System were administered to a sample of 51 students from the ninth, tenth and eleventh grades. Teachers and parents also provided ratings of social skills. Changes in behavior were monitored via summaries of disciplinary referrals to the principals' offices during 60 day periods before and after training. Additionally, consumer satisfaction ratings from disputants involved in peer mediation were utilized to assess the effects of the program. Analysis of covariance was applied to the posttreatment ratings of the participants' self-esteem, social skills, and disciplinary referrals with the pretreatment ratings serving as the covariate. The test results were analyzed at the 0.05 level of significance.

Results: No statistically significant changes were found in self-esteem, social skills or frequency of disciplinary referrals among the mediators before and after peer mediation training, or training and practice. Nevertheless, the mediators were effective in helping other students peacefully resolve disputes in more than 90% of the cases brought to mediation. Consumer satisfaction ratings from disputants participating in peer mediation confirmed the success of the program in resolving disagreements among students enrolled in a vocational technical high school. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 2073, 00073 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 289

Author: Nelson, Linden L.; Milburn, Thomas W.

Year: 1999

Title: Relationships between Problem-Solving Competencies and Militaristic Attitudes: Implications for Peace Education

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 5(2): 149-168

Abstract: "This study investigated relationships between problem-solving competencies and militaristic attitudes in a sample of 101 college students. Problem-solving competencies for international conflict resolution were assessed by using the Conflict Resolution Strategies Checklist to score essays written about how the President of the U.S. could respond to a hypothetical conflict between the U.S. and Iran. SAT Verbal scores and grades in introductory psychology classes were used as measures of more general problem-solving ability. While checklist scores, SAT scores, and class grades were interrelated, measures of problem-solving competency were not significantly correlated with militaristic attitudes nor with gun control attitudes, Religious/Social Authoritarianism, or Social Dominance Orientation. However, militaristic attitudes were related to Religious/Social Authoritarianism (r=.45) and to Social Dominance Orientation (r=.35). Implications for peace education are discussed." Authors' Abstract

Notes: Requests for reprints should be sent to Linden L. Nelson, Psychology and Human Development Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 E-mail: lnelson@calpoly.edu.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 290

Author: Nelson, Linden L.; Slyck, Michael R. Van; Cardella, Lucille A.

Year: 1999

Title: Curricula for Teaching Adolescents about Peace and Conflict

Journal: Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 5(2): 169-174

Abstract: "To provide comparative information about existing curricula to high school teachers and other educators, the Peace and Education Working Group of Division 48 of the American Psychological Association conducted an evaluation of five peace and conflict curricula written for adolescents or high school teachers. Other purposed of the evaluation project were to investigate the utilization of psychological concepts in the curricula and to give suggestions for improving the curricula to authors and publishers.... For this review article, we briefly describe and critique each of the five curricula, compare them with regard to pedagogical characteristics and expected impact on peace education objectives, and make some general observation about utilization of psychological concepts." p. 170)

The five curricula reviewed are as follows:

Conflict Resolution, Vivian Einstein Gordon, 1988, Florence, KT: ITP West Publishing. (800-354-9706)

Conflict Resolution: A Secondary School Curriculum, Gail Sadalla, Manti Henriquez, and Meg Holmberg, 1987, San Francisco: The Community Board Program, Inc. (415-552-1250)

Making Choices About Conflict, Security, and Peacemaking: A High School Resolution Curriculum; Part 1: Personal Perspectives, Carol M. Lieber, 1994, Cambridge, MA: Educators for Social Responsibility. (617-492-1764)

Managing World Conflict: A Resource Unit for High Schools, James E. Davis and James S. Eckenrod, 1994, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (202-429-3846)

Workbook for the Course in Peaceful Conflict Resolution "Alternatives to Violence," John Looney, 1995, Akron, OH: Peace Grows, Inc. (330-336-8031) MB

Notes: Requests for reprints should be sent to Linden L. Nelson, Psychology and Human Development Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 E-mail: lnelson@calpoly.edu. Related citation:The complete report of the projects' findings has been published as a book chapter in I. Harris & L. Forcey (Eds.), Peacebuilding for adolescents: Strategies for teachers and community leaders (pp. 91-117). New York: Peter Lang. Author information: M.R. Van Slyck - Research Institute for Dispute Resolution, Albany, NY; L.A. Cardella - Department of Counseling Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York.

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 291

Author: Nelson, Linden L.; Slyck, Michael R. Van; Cardella, Lucille A.

Year: 1999

Title: Peace and Conflict Curricula for Adolescents

Editor: Harris, Ian; Forcey, Linda Rennie

Book Title: Peacebuilding for Adolescents

City: New York

Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing

Pages: 91-117

Abstract: See Nelson, et.al., 1999, Curricula for Teaching Adolescents about Peace and Conflict

Notes: Peter Lang Publishing, 800-770-5264; www.peterlang.com

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 175

Author: NELSON-HAYNES, LILLIE

Year: 1995

Title: THE IMPACT OF THE STUDENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM IN DALLAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS (TEXAS)

Academic Dept.: TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY

Number of Pages: 199

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9601168

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; PSYCHOLOGY, GENERAL

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the student conflict resolution program in the Dallas Public Schools and add to the current research base in the field. The study followed guidelines established by Lam (1989). Six pilot schools in the Dallas Public Schools participated in the study. Two high schools; experimental and control, two middle schools; experimental and control, and two elementary schools; experimental and control. These schools were matched by the Research and Evaluation Department in the DPS with the At-Risk Indices, examining gender, SES, and ethnicity. There were 112 student subjects and 25 school personnel (i.e., principals, counselors and teachers). All student subjects pre-post-tested on conflict style measures, attitudinal questionnaires, school climate surveys, and a self-concept scale. School personnel pre-ost-tested on a conflict style measure and a school climate survey. The experimental students received in training peer mediation and conflict resolution; the control students did not. The independent variables were: treatment with two levels; experimental and control, education with three levels; elementary, middle and high school and gender; male and female. The dependent variables were: attitude, conflict styles, school climate and self-concept.

Results: T-tests, F-tests, and chi-square measures did not reveal any significant results except for grade level in a 2 x 2 x 3 ANOVA with the dependent variable school climate. Possible reasons for this significance were developmental factors, older students being more aware of chaos and violence in their immediate environment, and the false sense of security of younger children that adults will "fix" the problem. Although, this study was not heavily weighted with significant results, this investigator like others in the field of conflict resolution, (McDaniel, 1992; Ellsworth, 1993; Bickmore, 1993 & Kmitta, 1995), continues to support its efficacy in assisting trained student mediators in resolving conflicts in their immediate environments. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-09A, Page 3458, 00199 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 87

Author: Newland, Lori M.; Slyck, Michael R. Van; Stern, Marilyn; Olexa, Michelle

Year: 1992

Title: Ameliorative Interventions for High-Risk Adolescents: An Experimental Comparison.

City: Albany, NY

Institution: SUNY-Albany

Type: Evaluation of family-based juvenile justice diversion project

Abstract: Synopsis: This paper reports on the initial findings from research-in-progress examining the impact and effectiveness of the Person In Need of Supervision (PINS) Juvenile Justice Diversion Program. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the success of the PINS Program in shifting from a troubled adolescent focus to a family-centered approach. The research consisted of three phases of evaluation: pre-, post-intervention, and long-term assessment. 150 client families were processed through the pre-intervention phase assessing family functioning, self-image, conflict management style, and client perceptions of the problem. 40 families have been processed through the post-intervention phase, which assesses parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the intervention services and its outcome. These same 40 families are currently the subjects of the long-term assessment phase.

Conclusions: The preliminary results indicate extremely low family functioning, with parents and adolescents generally regarding their families as dysfunctional, thus validating the intent of the PINS program in moving from a child to a family focus orientation. The results also show a positive relationship between greater dysfunction and successful intervention, suggesting that these dysfunctional families are amenable to intervention. It is acknowledged, however, that further data collection of the long-term assessment phase is needed to further substantiate these conclusions. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 355

Author: Nims, Donald R.; Wilson, Richard W.

Year of Conference: 1998

Title: Violence Prevention Preparation: A Survey of Colleges of Education and Departments of Teacher Education.

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education

Conference Location: New Orleans, LA,

Pages: 15

Date: February 25-28, 1998

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED418052

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Administrator Attitudes; Curriculum; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Preservice Teacher Education; Prevention; School Safety; Student Behavior; Students; Violence

Abstract: Surveys of teacher education programs at U.S. colleges and universities examined what is being done to prepare teachers to respond to school violence and participate in prevention programs. Questionnaires were mailed to department heads and deans of colleges and universities belonging to the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. The questionnaires

examined attitudes and policies with respect to including violence prevention in the teacher education curriculum. They asked whether there was a single course in the teacher education curriculum that focused exclusively on violence prevention and intervention in schools; whether the institution sponsored workshops related to violence prevention; and if faculty and staff consulted on a local or state level regarding issues related to school violence. Specific topics addressed included conflict resolution, peer mediation training, crisis response, gang awareness, classroom strategies for disruptive behaviors, violence de-escalation, and knowledge of search and seizure procedures and due process laws. A total of 350 administrators responded to the survey. Results indicated that most institutions were doing very little to prepare teachers to cope with school violence. Fewer than half believed their schools needed more preparation for teachers in violence preparation. Administrators who had heard reports about school violence from recent graduates tended to offer more workshops and seminars on violence. Contain 15 references. (Author/SM)

Notes: ERIC

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 176

Author: O'DONNELL, HELEN C.

Year: 1999

Title: FROM THE EYES OF STUDENTS: AN IN-DEPTH STUDY OF A FOURTH GRADE PEER MEDIATION CLASS (CONFLICT RESOLUTION, VIOLENCE PREVENTION)

Academic Dept.: EDD

University: UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS

Number of Pages: 243

Type of Work: Dissertation

Accession Number: AAT 9920635

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

Abstract: At Bridge Street School in Northampton, Massachusetts, all Grade 4 students in three classes were trained as peer mediators. The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate how elementary school students perceive the usefulness of their peer mediation training and whether they were able to incorporate mediation skills into their lives. Trainees practiced respectful communication, studied conflict, discussed options for nonviolent resolution, and participated in role plays to learn peer mediation techniques. Data gathered from written student pre, mid and post assessment documents was analyzed to determine student perceptions and responses about program effectiveness, specifically, the value, usefulness, and impact of their training. Feedback from teachers, principal, and parents provided supplemental program assessment data and ideas for curriculum enhancement. This study did not attempt to measure a reduction of violence or violent behavior. By the conclusion of the training, research findings and statistical comparisons document that Grade 4 students: (1) Recognized that skills learned and practiced during their peer mediation training were helpful and useful; (2) Reported immediate implementation of mediation skills for problem solving during school and non-school time; (3) Listed peers and family as primary resources for assistance with conflict; (4) Identified themselves as problem solvers on an open-ended question; and (5) Indicated they would choose peer mediation for conflict resolution, if needed, appropriate, or available. The aggregate research statistics of the training Class of 1997 were summarized, analyzed and compared to aggregate data from the Bridge Street School Training Classes of 1995, 1996, and 1998 that had the same trainer, similar training curriculum, and identical questions on similarly administered self-assessments. Multi-year comparisons expanded this research into a 4-year local study.

Results: The research findings strongly support that grade 4 students are capable of understanding and implementing skills learned during peer mediation training. As volunteer school peer mediators or not, everyone can provide valuable community service modeling, promoting and assisting with peaceful conflict resolution. Teaching all students about respectful dispute management and providing them opportunities for integrating learning into classroom and personal life experiences can be a valuable component of elementary school violence prevention education. Author

Notes: DAI-A 60/02, p. 341, Aug 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 177

Author: O'QUINN, DORETHA ANN

Year: 1998

Title: PEER MEDIATION: A CONSTRUCTIVE STRATEGY TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN SCHOOL CONTEXT

University: SCHOOL OF INTERCULTURAL STUDIES, BIOLA UNIVERSITY

Adviser: LINGENFELTER, JUDITH

Number of Pages: 244

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9913251

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, BILINGUAL AND MULTICULTURAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; BLACK STUDIES

Abstract: African-American students have a long history of being on the "lose" side of the win-lose equation in schools and have adopted ever more aggressive patterns for resolving conflicts. Three years ago, recognizing how destructive these patterns were, the administration in an inner-city Los Angeles, African-American school setting, desired to help their students develop new patterns that would result in a constructive or win-win resolution style. A cadre group of students were trained to become peer mediators. They were to learn skills and strategies that promoted constructive behavior patterns for resolving conflicts among peers and would allow staff increased time for classroom instruction. The purpose of this research is to examine the successful use of the peer mediator model in an African American Christian school context. The study was conducted during the fall semester with spot visits during the spring to observe the progress of the process and test the data. The data sources used were observations of 33 mediations and resolutions, teacher and student questionnaires; administration, faculty and staff surveys; structured interviews with administration, faculty, staff and students; and participant observations.

Results: There were four major findings from the study that indicated the peer mediator model in an African American school context was successful. First, attention was given to providing peer mediation training to a cadre of students in order to prepare students with skills and strategies of mediation; and there was a commitment from the administration to create and support the peer mediation process. Second, peer mediations were used to resolve conflicts between students; third, the use of peer mediation promoted constructive behavior patterns among students with prayer being an integral contributing factor to these patterns; fourth, the administration and staff who supervised students during the recess and lunch time had increased time for job responsibilities. Teacher responses did show that more increased classroom time was attributable to the mediation strategy. In addition to the study results, four recommendations were made to further the use of the mediation model: first, a study of the skills and strategies used in other training programs to compare the effectiveness to the one used in this study; second, a comparative study of a United States school with a school in the Eastern world, who by cultural norms use the mediator model to resolve conflicts; third, a study of changed behavioral patterns in students observed within the context of the home as a result of peer mediation training; fourth, a study of the effectiveness of using the mediation model to bridge cross-cultural relations in schools. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/11, p. 4035, May 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 178

Author: O'SHAUGHNESSY, MICHAEL EDWARD, JR.

Year: 1998

Title: PROVIDING CONSULTATIVE SERVICES TO MULTIPLE GROUPS WORKING WITHIN A SCHOOL-BASED PEER RESOURCE PROGRAM: A CASE INVESTIGATION (SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATION REFORM, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, SOCIAL SKILLS)

Academic Dept.: PSYD

University: RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY, G.S.A.P.P.

Adviser: SCHNEIDER, KENNETH C.

Number of Pages: 181

Accession Number: AAT 9920182

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: School psychologists are being asked to play major roles in educational reform in the United States (Short &amp; Talley, 1997; Tirozzi &amp; Uro, 1997). Among the recommendations for school psychologists working on school change initiatives are (1) assisting in the development of conflict resolution programs and social skills curricula to improve school atmosphere, (2) working directly with individual students and groups of students to increase essential skills including problem solving and mediating disputes, and (3) working directly and indirectly with school staff to help change the psychological and social climate of the school (Tirozzi &amp; Uro, 1997). Peer resource programs generally consist of a group of selected and trained students delivering a variety of services (e.g., peer listening, peer mediation, and group facilitation) to other students within the school setting (Benard, 1991). Peer-based programs have an overarching goal of improving the school's environment so that effective teaching and successful learning can take place (Benard, 1991). These types of programs provide many opportunities for school psychologists: as program consultants helping with the design and evaluation of such programs, as skills-based trainers, as supervisors, and as supporters. This case study investigation was undertaken in order to better understand the role of a school psychologist working as an "on-site consultant" with a public high school, peer-based resource program.

Results: A detailed description of the consultative services provided to the multiple groups working within this program is presented and was utilized to answer four case study questions. Limitations of this approach are considered, and future directions for research and practice with peer resource programs are discussed. Recommendations for the roles of school psychologists working with peer resource programs are outlined. Author

Notes: DAI-A 60/02, p. 336, Aug 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Generic

Record Number: 292

Author: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution & Conflict Management

Year: 1999

Title: Assessing Your School's Conflict Management Program

Place Published: Columbus, OH

Publisher: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution & Conflict Management,

Pages: 5

Abstract: Includes following sections: What is Program Assessment?; Why Assess?; What to Assess?; How to Assess?; Who are the audiences for the assessment and what do they want to know?; Who will conduct the Assessment? Subsections of "How To Assess?" include: What are the Program's Goals and Objectives?; Measuring Success; Program Assessment without Baseline Data; and Things to be Aware of in Collecting Data.MB

Notes: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, 77 S. High St., 24th Floor, Columbus, OH 43266-0124.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 88

Author: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Year: 1991

Title: Conflict in Schools: Can Ohio's Youth Be Taught Better Ways of Resolving Problems?

City: Columbus

Institution: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Pages: 11

Date: May 1992

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 89

Author: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Year: 1992

Title: Dealing with conflict in Ohio's schools: teaching students new skills to resolve conflicts without violence. Second year report of the school management demonstration project 1990 - 1993

City: Columbus, OH

Institution: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Type: project evaluation report

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 90

Author: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Year: 1993

Title: Conflict Management in Schools: Sowing Seeds for a Safer Society: Final Report of the School Conflict Management Demonstration Project 1990-1993

City: Columbus, OH

Institution: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Pages: 26

Date: December 1993

Type: project report

Keywords: peer mediation, conflict management, curriculum infusion, mediaton approach, classroom approach, comprehensive approach

Abstract: Over 30 schools in rural, suburban and urban communities participated. Three years of quantitative data consists of hundreds of months of information on disciplinary actions and mediation, and thousands of student attitude surveys. Overall, the information indicated that most students improved their attitudes toward conflict, increased their understanding of non-violent problem solving methods, and enhanced their communication skills. Due to the uniqueness of individual schools and the variety of approaches used to implement conflict management programs, it was not possible to report comprehensive and conclusive trends that apply to al schools. Among other findings, the report states that "Changes occurred at different times for different schools during 1990-93. In some schools positive changes in students' attitudes were seen in the first year or 18 months and then held steady. In other schools, positive changes in students' attitudes were not evidenced until the second or third year of a program's existence." MB

Notes: +Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, 77 S. High St., 24th Floor, Columbus, OH 43266-0124, 614-752-9595.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 91

Author: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Year: 1997

Title: Conflict Management Programs in Ohio Elementary Schools: Case Studies and Evaluations

City: Columbus

Institution: Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management and Ohio Department of Education

Pages: 15

Date: February 1997

Type: program report and evaluation, case studies

Abstract: This report presents more detailed findings from a dozen of the 132 elementary schools that received OCDRCM seed money. Case studies were selected to represent a range of geographical and sociological settings, diverse student populations, and different methodologies of implementation. These schools are part of a joint program of OCDRCM and the Department of Education which has resulted in the establishment of comprehensive conflict management programs in 283 elementary, middle, and high schools. The initiative has provided curricular materials and skills training for administrators, teachers, staff, students, and parents about how to manage conflicts in non-violent, cooperative ways. In 1994-95, 132 Ohio elementary schools received small OCDRCM grants ($1500) to begin building conflict resolution programs in their schools. In 1996, questionnaires were sent out to these schools to assess their progress. Results from 115 responses: 78% of respondents said they have seen improvement in classroom management; 65% report a decrease in the amount of time teachers spend dealing with student conflicts; 61% note a decrease in student fights; 59% report a decrease in office referrals. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 293

Author: Olweus, D.

Year: 1984

Title: Aggressors and their victims: Bullying at school

Editor: Frude, N.; Gault, H.

Book Title: Disruptive behavior in schools

City: New York

Publisher: John Wiley

Pages: 57-76

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 294

Author: Openshaw, D.

Year: 1992

Title: Conflict resolution in parent-adolescent dyads: The influence of social skills training

Journal: Journal of Adolescent Research 7(4): 457-468

Notes: Reference in Heinecken and Gromko article

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 179

Author: PARIETTI, PATRICK EMMETT

Year: 1994

Title: DISRESPECT, MISBEHAVIOR, AND VIOLENCE: A CASE STUDY OF A SUBURBAN HIGH SCHOOL

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE

Sponsor: MARGARET TERRY ORR

Number of Pages: 154

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAI9511060

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Abstract: This study answers the following questions: How does a school respond to an increasing trend of disrespect, misbehavior and violent episodes on campus? What methods can be used to identify the causes of these problems? What are some possible solutions to student disrespect, misbehavior, and violence? This study employed a multi methodological approach to research the problem of student disrespect, misbehavior and violence. The problem was studied during the period of September, 1992 through June, 1993. Data collected were based on questionnaires and focus group interviews of students and teachers. Other techniques that were used included analysis of discipline referral records, suspension records, and administrative memoranda. The case study included an examination of the school's response to episodes of misbehavior and violence on campus. Current practices used to diagnose reasons for misbehavior, and school policies governing student behavior were reviewed.

Results: The major discipline problems at Millwood High School during the 1992-93 school year were attendance related problems, rules violations and violence related problems. Most students and teachers complained of a high level of disrespect and misbehavior. Incidents of violence were not as frequent, and were committed most often by a "core group" of offenders, approximately 20 to 30 students. Intergroup conflict was rare, but when these problems did occur, they had a profound effect on the school milieu. Another significant finding of this study was that African-American students were suspended and referred at higher rates than white students. Analysis of data revealed that some existing policies at Millwood High School contribute to disrespect, misbehavior and violence. Two of these policies are academic tracking which contributes to racial segregation of students and the busing policy which excludes many African-American students from being bused to school.

Conclusions: Recommendations included revising policies, increasing the visibility of the existing peer mediation program, and implementing a conflict resolution program by the Educators for Social Responsibility called the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program for Secondary Students. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-11A, Page 3374, 00154 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 180

Author: PARKHURST, K.J.

Year: 1988

Title: SUPPLEMENTING ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE WITH CONFLICT RESOLUTION TO DEVELOP SOCIAL SKILLS AT THE INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

University: Nova University

Type of Work: Doctoral dissertation

Call Number: ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 296 802

Notes: The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 356

Author: Parkhurst, Kathleen J.

Year: 1988

Title: Supplementing Assertive Discipline with Conflict Resolution To Develop Social Skills at the Intermediate Level

University: Nova University

Number of Pages: 76

Type of Work: Ed.D. Practicum

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED296802

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Aggression; Conflict Resolution; Discipline Problems; Educational Improvement; Elementary Education;

Elementary School Students; Inservice Teacher Education; Intermediate Grades; Interpersonal Competence; Intervention;

Program Effectiveness; Prosocial Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Program Monitoring

Abstract: A middle school principal with 17 years of experience as a classroom teacher implemented a practicum designed to develop positive, long-lasting social skills among elementary school students in the intermediate grades. The primary goal of the intervention was to decrease the number of instances in which students used verbal or physical aggression to solve conflicts in informal and unsupervised situations. A second aim was to provide students with strategies for solving conflicts peacefully. The principal and intermediate grade teachers selected the Creative Conflict Resolution for Kids program for implementation. Implementation involved: (1) in-service training for teachers who, in turn, trained students; (2) monitoring of the progress of students in applying skills learned; (3) assistance to teachers who monitored students; and (4) collection and review of practicum evaluation data. Data indicated that outcomes of the intervention were positive. The number of students referred to the principal because of aggressive behavior decreased, as did the number of verbal conflicts on the playground. Students

requested opportunities to discuss conflicts with peers. Close relationships between teachers and students developed as a result of classroom discussions of conflict resolution. Related materials including the survey instrument are appended. (RH)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 181

Author: PASTORINO, RAYMOND CHARLES

Year: 1990

Title: MEDIATION PROCESS: A CONSENSUS MODEL DESIGNED BY STUDENT PARTICIPANTS (CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEER MEDIATION)

University: SAYBROOK INSTITUTE

Number of Pages: 335

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9107114

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF; LAW; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; SOCIOLOGY, INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS

Abstract: This study questions the dominant use of logical-positivism in mediation research and proposes the use of post-positivist thought and methods as theoretical foundations for understanding and constructing mediation theory. A map of the mediation transformation process from the inside of experience was developed through use of systems design methods. A design team, composed of adolescents who had mediation process experience as parties in conflict was formed for collaborative experience and theory building. Ten students, ranging in age from 16 to 18, and the author used consensus techniques to generate a description of the essential features of mediation conflict resolution as a system. Additional material was drawn from the literature and from the author's experience. The environment, structures and processes of the peer-mediation transformation process are identified and contrasted with other conflict resolution systems. The roles of "conflict" and "power" in conflict resolution are considered, as well as the transdisciplinary nature of conflict resolution, to highlight current difficulties encountered in attempts to develop a consensus paradigm for the process. The nature of current research and theory building is cited to demonstrate the outside-in (as opposed to an inside-out) approach to understanding the mediation transformation process. General theories of transformation in the mediation process are explored and compared to philosophical theories grounded in humanism, holism, phenomenology, and dialogical theory to reveal the critical role played by dialogical experience in the mediation process. In dissipative structures, fluctuations (conflict) from homeostasis potentially lead to transformation (depending on the process utilized) leading to reorganization on higher level.

Results: The essential feature of the mediation transformation process was found to be its ability to potentiate dialogical experience. Realization of this experience by process users was found to be the generative factor in creating higher levels of participant awareness, stimulating empowerment, better communication, self-esteem, confidence, self-realization, and accumulation of skills for greater evolutionary competence. Awareness of the role played by dialogical experience in the mediation process across disciplines will assist in the development of a client centered consensus theory of the mediation process. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 51-10B, Page 5075, 00335 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 92

Author: Pastorino, Ray

Year: 1997

Title: A Mediation Approach Designed by Adolescent Disputants

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 14(3): 251-ff

Keywords: peer mediation

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 182

Author: PATTI, JANET

Year: 1996

Title: PERCEPTIONS OF THE PEER MEDIATION COMPONENT OF A SCHOOL-WIDE CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM: RESOLVING CONFLICT CREATIVELY

University: NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY

Number of Pages: 330

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9625767

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: This study is a formative evaluation of the peer mediation component of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP), a nationally recognized conflict resolution program that is in more than 325 schools across the country. It was the intent of this study to gain insight into two arenas: the experiences of student mediators in the program and the perceptions of school members regarding the peer mediation program in their schools. A multi-method, multiple case study design was utilized in three states--California, Louisiana, and New York--in two elementary schools and a middle school. This study described the thoughts and perceptions of student mediators, first from their eyes, and secondly from the perspective of teachers, peer mediation coaches, administrators, disputants, and other students. The study also described the differences and similarities of the RCCP peer mediation component at each school site. It provided descriptive information regarding the resolution of conflict among young people and the ways in which the climate of the school had changed since involvement in the program. It described the factors that appear to have inhibited or enhanced the peer mediation program in schools, focusing on implementation processes as well.

Results: Common themes regarding the mediators and school members experiences were explored as they emerged in the data analysis process. These themes included in-depth descriptions of mediators perceptions about the difference they believed they were making in their lives and the lives of others; what they learned about peer mediation since they became mediators; changes they saw in themselves since their involvement in the program; and what their school was like since the program began. Teacher themes emerged to support what mediators said about themselves and their schools. Teachers described personal changes they had experienced through this work and why they felt committed to this work; their perceptions of the mediator's commitment; their view of the mediators' behaviors since peer mediation and what their school communities were like since the peer mediation began. Finally, a student survey was administered to 283 students at these three schools to determine students' perceptions of the peer mediation component at their schools. Analyses of variance were conducted to determine statistically significant results across sites, between genders, and between mediators and nonmediators.

Conclusions: Significant findings were recorded, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made to the RCCP National Center from this formative evaluation to highlight factors that appeared to inhibit or enhance the program. It is clear from these findings that the RCC peer mediation programs at these sites were perceived as contributing to the creation of a climate of nonviolence by students and adults at these schools; that peer mediators were respected by students and adults; and these programs worked best when they were supported by other program components such as staff training and the teaching of conflict resolution lessons in the classrooms. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-04A, Page 1425, 00330 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 295

Author: Pilati, David; Constrini-Norgal, Rita; Webne-Behrman, Harry

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: Peer Mediation: Creating an Agenda for Increased Effectiveness; Survey Results

Conference Name: National Association for Mediation in Education, 8th Annual Conference

Conference Location: Kenosha, WI

Pages: 13

Date: July 24, 1993

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 296

Author: Pilati, David

Year: 1994

Title: An Agenda for Increasing the Effectiveness of Peer Mediation Programs

Journal: The Fourth R 48: 8-11

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 93

Author: Posner, M.

Year: 1994

Title: Research raises troubling questions about violence prevention programs.

Journal: The Harvard Educational Letter X(3): 1-4

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 297

Author: Posner, M.

Year: 1994

Title: Research Raises Troubling Questions About Violence Prevention Programs

Journal: The Fourth R 52: 4, 12-14

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 94

Author: Powell, Kenneth E.; Muir-McClain, Lois; Halasyamani, Lakshmi

Year: 1995

Title: A Review of Selected School-Based Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Projects

Journal: Journal of School Health 65(10)

Keywords: conflict resolution, peer mediation

Abstract: Many U. S. schools are implementing curricula and other activities to reduce interpersonal violence among students. Most involve conflict resolution or peer mediation (CR/PM) training. Little is known about the effectiveness or manner of implementing these projects. (from the Abstract) This paper describes, in general, the use of conflict resolution or peer mediation in schools as a way to reduce interpersonal violence. It summarizes nine school projects in four states (Florida, Maryland, Missouri, and North Carolina) that were supported by grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. The projects differed in approach from elementary classrooms lessons, peer mediation at elementary, junior high and high school levels and a combination of conflict resolution and peer mediation. Each project had positive and mixed results. Projects used curriculum based on materials from the Grace Contrino Abrams Peace Education Foundation and the Community Board Program.

Categories of Project Variation: Eight categories of project variation were noted: Targeted Students, Project Consultant, Teacher and Student Training, Teaching Methods and Curriculum Content, Mediation Format, Complementary Strategies, Project Cost, and Project Evaluation.

Recommendations: 1. Evaluation of CR/PM projects is needed to determine costs and benefits.

2. School officials should asses the success of any project adopted by their school; assessments need not be expensive or exhaustive. 3. Evaluations should describe the target group; the comparison group, if any; content of the curriculum; project implementation including the role of a consultant, if any; amount and type of teacher training; amount and type of student training; quantitative changes, if any, in violence-related knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors of the students, both short-term and longer-term; characteristics of the community in which the project takes place; and other associated efforts such as involvement of parents or provision of mentors. The authors note that assistance with an evaluation may be available from local or state health departments, or local colleges or universities. MB

Notes: +

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 95

Author: Powell, Kenneth E.; Hawkins, Darnell F.

Year: 1996

Title: Youth Violence Prevention: Descriptions and Baseline Data from 13 Evaluation Projects

Institution: Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Date: September/October 1996

Keywords: Violence prevention

Abstract: This special issue is devoted to reporting on the descriptions and baseline data from 13 youth violence prevention projects funded by the Center for Disease Control. These are primarily community-based interventions designed to prevent aggressive and violent behavior among children and adolescents. Two sections of this report/special issue are itemized in this bibliography: Aber, et.al., "The Evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: An Overview" and Powell, et.al., "Prevention of Youth Violence: Rationale and Characteristics of 15 Evaluation Projects".

Results: Project evaluation results and contact information available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/res-opps/ythviolc.htm

Notes: +Available from CDC at 770-488-4646; see related citation, NCIPC.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 298

Author: Powell, Kenneth E.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Friday, Jennifer; Mercy, James A.; Thornton, Timothy; Crawford, Shaunette

Year: 1996

Title: Prevention of Youth Violence: Rationale and Characteristics of 15 Evaluation Projects

Journal: American Journal of Preventive Medicine 12(5): 3-12

Abstract: "Interpersonal violence is a major cause of injury, disability, and death, especially among youth. Evaluations of 15 youth violence-prevention projects are under way. ... The interventions are scientifically based and use a spectrum of strategies. Individually oriented strategies are more common than those directed toward peers, families, schools, or communities. Each project has a rigorous evaluation design. " from the authors' abstract.

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 183

Author: QUIGLEY, LORI JOHNSON

Year: 1997

Title: PEACE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM: EFFECTS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' AND STUDENTS' COMMUNICATION, AFFIRMATION, COOPERATION, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION INTERACTIONS

University: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

Mentor: THERESA CICCHELLI

Number of Pages: 427

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9809013

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Abstract: This study sought to determine the effects of the Peace Maintenance System (PMS) on teacher and student communication, affirmation, cooperation, and conflict resolution interactions prior to and after training and implementation, as measured by: the Peace Maintenance Observational Category Scale (PMOCS), guided teacher dialogue journals, and guided student reflective journals. Basic PMS objectives were to: view conflict as a way of growing through interactions, understand that problem solving is the best way to solve a conflict, work cooperatively in order to seek viable solutions to conflict, and understand and respect another's perspective in a conflict situation. Treatment consisted of 16 lessons implemented over a 4-week period and equally divided into four distinct domains: communication, affirmation, cooperation, and conflict resolution. Data for this study were collected from 91 female adolescent students from three 11th-grade religious education classes and their respective teachers (n = 3), two female and one male, in a culturally diverse setting in a private school in the Bronx, New York.

Results: The data collected from the results of the PMOCS were statistically analyzed for interrater reliability by using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and teacher- student interactions within each domain by utilizing t-test procedures. A two-way ANOVA of the PMOCS yielded a summary result for each PMS domain. Although the results of the frequencies of teacher and student interactions indicated a nonsignificant average gain of: 6 within the communication domain, 33 within the affirmation domain, 34.11 within the cooperation domain, and 71.7761.44 within the conflict resolution of the PMOCS. Content analyses of the reflective journals also produced significant results for each of the four domains. In sum, the data and content analyses demonstrated that the majority of the teachers and students understood the goals of each PMS domain, substantiating the findings of the significance of the interactions studied in this investigation.

Conclusions: The findings of this study have implications for curriculum development and instructional methodologies for secondary teachers and students for the successful implementation of a violence prevention program in an urban setting where teachers and students come from different cultures, ethnic groups, and linguistic backgrounds. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-09A, Page 3406, 00427 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 184

Author: RINER, MARY ELIZABETH KOEHN

Year: 1998

Title: SOCIAL ECOLOGY MODEL OF ADOLESCENT INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION (PEER MEDIATION)

University: INDIANA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF NURSING

Number of Pages: 167

Type of Work: Dissertation, DNS

Accession Number: AAT 9828964

Keywords: Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, NURSING; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; SOCIOLOGY, CRIMINOLOGY AND PENOLOGY

Abstract: Middle schools are teaching students to be peer mediators as part of comprehensive conflict mediation programs in order to reduce interpersonal violence and foster a more conducive learning atmosphere. The purposes of this study were to (1) adapt and test the Social Ecology Model of Adolescent Interpersonal Violence Prevention (SEMAIVP), (2) develop and test the Youth Conflict Mediation Survey as a measure of the SEMAIVP constructs, and (3) test the model's usefulness in detecting differences among students participating versus those not participating as peer mediators in middle school-based programs. This was a cross-sectional, post-intervention study of 318 students (ages 11-15) in three suburban middle schools using a one time survey. Factor and reliability analysis for the Youth Conflict Mediation Survey revealed twelve scales containing 53 items with Cronbach alpha's ranging from.61 to.86 that were retained for data analysis. The SEMAIVP was found to explain 44 percent of self-reported violence avoidance behaviors and 51 percent of violence engagement behaviors. When the Violence Avoidance Behaviors Scale was used as the dependent variable, Gender, Recognition for Violence Avoidance and Violence Engagement Behavior were the predictor variables. Using the Violence Engagement Behavior Scale as the dependent variable, the predictor variables were Anger Control Beliefs, Anger Control Strategies, Self-Efficacy, Neighborhood Fighting, Skill Development Opportunity and Violence Avoidance Behaviors.

Results: Seven of the twelve scales associated students who had been asked to mediate a conflict between other students with more pro-social attitudes and behaviors than with students who had not been asked to mediate a conflict between other students. These scales included Anger Control Beliefs, Anger Control Strategies, Violence Avoidance Behaviors, Family Climate, Skill Development Opportunity, Recognition for Violence Avoidance and School Climate. Demographic variables showed significant differences on the three interpersonal violence scales. Significant differences were found on the remaining nine social ecology scales.

Conclusions: Adolescent violence prevention can be understood through the use of the SEMAIVP. The first step in model development, construct identification, was taken in this study. Further testing needs to occur in scale development path analysis and with additional adolescent populations. Recommendations are made for education, practice, research and health policy development. Author

Notes: DAI-B 59/04, p. 1588, Oct 1998. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 185

Author: ROBINSON, ELIZABETH MARGARET FOWLER

Year: 1992

Title: EVALUATION OF A PEER CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN A MIDDLE SCHOOL SETTING (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

Academic Dept.: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER

Number of Pages: 192

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9318089

Keywords: Co-directors: RICHARD TURNER; ERNEST HOUSE

DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract: Peer conflict management is advocated as a means of providing students with a nonviolent alternative for coping with inevitable interpersonal disputes that develop in schools. However, little systematic evaluation of such programs' effects exists. Impacts of a first year implementation were investigated through use of a program evaluation paradigm. Program effects on the school and on the 24 student Conflict Managers were explored; comparisons between baseline year (1990-1991) and the project year 1991-1992) data were made. Information was collected through review of school records, through surveys, questionnaires, interviews, observations, and by means of a computer database generated from mediation session record forms.

Results: Results suggested the program was positively perceived by the student body, was used frequently across grade and gender, and resulted in acceptable rates of agreements reached between disputants, with a high percentage of these agreements reported to be in effect 4 to 8 weeks following mediation sessions. Administrators and counselors believed they dealt with fewer instances of peer conflict because of the program. Percentage of students suspended for fighting remained constant from baseline to project years, despite increases in total numbers of suspensions, a larger student body population, and a greater proportion of high-risk students enrolled during the project year. Teacher support for the program remained strong throughout implementation, but concerns grew over the year regarding among of class time missed by both Conflict Managers and disputants. Conflict Managers believed the mediation process was effective in helping students work out problems they had with each other, and improved the school. They reported that listening and problem-solving skills gained through program training and participation had been useful in their personal lives. Attempts to measure attitudinal changes among student body, staff, and managers were unsuccessful. No statistically significant effects of program participation were found for Conflict Managers' grades, attendance, or scores on a measure of self-esteem. A framework for viewing children's and adolescents' experiences with interpersonal conflict from a cognitive developmental perspective was offered.

Conclusions: Findings regarding students' use of the mediation process were interpreted using this perspective, and suggestions were made for further research in this area. This study tended to confirm previous anecdotal reports of positive program effects. However, generalization of conclusions is limited; this work should be viewed as a pilot study. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 54-04A, Page 1295, 00192 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 96

Author: Roderick, Tom; Metropolitan Area Educators for Social Responsibility

Year: 1995

Title: RCCP Research Program: An Overview

City: New York, NY

Institution: Metropolitan Area Educators for Social Responsibility

Type: evaluation designs/strategies, program design description

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, multiple schools -, urban schools, violence prevention

Abstract: This literature provides information on the RCCP (Resolving Conflict Creatively Program), whose objective is to prevent violence and to promote caring, cooperative behavior among young people. The primary focus of this paper is to introduce the RCCP research program, which aims to gather information and measure the effectiveness of the RCCP, providing insight and data for practitioners and policy-makers as to how they may develop their own conflict resolution programs. A study of the RCCP, presently in the works, will contain three components: 1) A longitudinal child process-and-outcome study that will examine the impact of the RCCP on reducing violence and violence-related behavior among children; 2) An intensive multi-method study providing an in-depth analysis of the RCCP's methods in teaching students and teachers conflict resolution skills; and 3) The development of a management information system to provide a future method of collecting data about the implementation of the RCCP. These studies will include 14,000 children between the ages of five and twelve, selected from schools currently participating in the RCCP as well as prospective participants. Methods to be utilized in gathering information will include surveys, interviews and observation. The results will be distributed to educators and policy-makers nationwide. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 97

Author: Roderick, Tom

Year: 1998

Title: Evaluating the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program

Journal: The Fourth R 82: 3 ff

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, mediation, multiple schools, urban schools

Abstract: Purpose: RCCP provides professional development for teachers to promote regular classroom instruction of the RCCP curriculum. The curriculum includes activities on themes such as peace and conflict, communication, dealing with feelings, negotiation, mediation, celebrating differences, and countering bias. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of RCCP on children in 15 of the 90 schools participating in RCCP in New York City over a two-year period - the 1994-95 and 1995-96 school years. (Research project principal investigator - J. Lawrence Aber-see related citation.)

Methodology: Schools experienced varying levels of intervention from RCCP, thus 4 AA schools received no intervention in year one and a beginning intervention in year two, 4 AB schools had beginning intervention moving to consolidation, 3 AC schools began at consolidation and moved to saturation, and 4 AD schools began at saturation and moved to a comprehensive model. The study had three components: (1) a management information system (MIS) to track implementation of the program in the 15 participating schools; (2) a large-scale, short-term longitudinal process-and-outcome study of impact of the RCCP on children; and (3) interviews with teachers. A set of age appropriate instruments was used including: measures of aggressive problem-solving strategies, aggressive fantasies, and hostile attributional biases.

Findings: (1) In general, and irrespective of their participation in the RCCP, children worsened in the attributes measured during one school year. This was considered an age-appropriate finding and was consistent with general findings of other child behavior studies in the age groups covered in this study.

(2) In classrooms where teachers taught lots of RCCP lessons, there was a significant positive impact on children's development over the year. Three levels of teacher implementation were identified: (a) high, (b) none, and (c) low. The study showed that the higher the teacher implementation of RCCP the lower the scores on aggression and hostility indicators.

(3) In classrooms with teachers who had a high level of contact with the program but taught only a few lessons, the children actually did worse over the year than children in classrooms with no instruction at all. This finding raised many questions which need to be looked at over a longer-term period. For example, why did teachers, who got substantial attention from the study staff, only minimally implement the curriculum? Why did their students do worse than those who had virtually no exposure to the program. The MIS becomes very important in tracking implementation to help focus on what more needs to be done and what could be done better.

Recommendations: The study shows that when fully implemented, RCCP provides positive results. In order to strengthen and sustain those results the study offers four suggestions. (1) Rethink the strategy for integrating RCCP in the school's instructional program. (2) Look for better ways to assess a school's organizational readiness for RCCP. (3) Increase utilization of the MIS in tracking program implementation. (4) Gather more information about the participating teachers, e.g., their ownership in the program, their willingness to implement, what further support they might need, etc. (5) The findings highlight the importance of getting educational policy-makers to set as priority the type of education provided by RCCP. Carolyne Ashton

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 357

Author: Rose, Amanda J.; Asher, Steven R.

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Children's Goals and Strategies in Response to Conflicts within a Friendship.

Conference Name: Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (62nd)

Conference Location: Washington, DC

Pages: 32

Date: April 3-6, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED409119

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Child Behavior; Children; Conflict Resolution; Elementary School Students; Friendship; Intermediate Grades; Interpersonal Competence; Objectives; Peer Relationship; Sex Differences; Social Cognition

IDENTIFIERS: Strategy Choice

Abstract: Although many studies have examined the competencies associated ith being well-liked by the peer group, far less is known about the competencies children need in order to make and maintain good quality friendships. This study addressed friendship

tasks, investigating 5 of 10 previously hypothesized competencies necessary to make and maintain good friendships: managing disagreements, being a reliable partner, dealing with multiple friendships and issues of exclusivity, helping when a friend is in need, and maintaining reciprocity or a spirit of equality in the friendship. Fourth- and fifth-grade children were presented with 6

hypothetical situations representing each of the 5 tasks, for a total of 30 hypothetical situations. Children's strategies, or what children said they would do in response to each situation, were assessed, as were children's goals, or what they said they would be trying to accomplish. The research attempted to answer: (1) if there is a relation between the goals children endorse and the behavioral strategies they select; (2) whether the strategies and goals are predictive of their friendship adjustment; and (3) whether boys and girls differ in types of strategies and goals. Results showed that the goals children chose were consistently related to the strategies they chose, that none of the adopted strategies or goals predicted Positive Friendship Quality after accounting for gender and peer acceptance (but were predictive of how conflicting children were rated by their best friend), and that there were gender differences for 11 of the 12 strategies and goals, with girls endorsing the accommodating and compromising strategies and the relationship and moral goals more than boys. (Contains 33 references.) (EV)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 186

Author: ROSEBERRY, LEA LYNNETTE

Year: 1997

Title: AN APPLIED EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION CURRICULUM AND SOCIAL SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

University: LOYOLA UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

Number of Pages: 118

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9726399

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

Abstract: As a result of the increasing violence in and around school buildings, many urban schools have began utilizing various prevention programs to develop peaceful conflict resolution skills in their students. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a conflict resolution curriculum. A fine-grained analysis was carried out on a series of measures of student social skills, problem behaviors, conduct grades, and suspension rates following the implementation of a conflict resolution training program within the context of an experimental and control group fourth, fifth, and sixth grade classrooms. One hundred and seventy-three students served as participants in the investigation. Experimental and control groups were compared following the implementation of conflict resolution training across fourth, fifth, and sixth grade classrooms. A before and after comparative group design was used to test five null hypotheses. Pre-test scores were compared prior to treatment and no differences were found across groups prior to the introduction of the treatment condition. Post-test scores were utilized in a 2 x 2 x 3 Multivariate Analysis of Variance procedures. The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) instrument was utilized to assess student self-ratings of social skills. The SSRS dependent measures included: cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self-control. In addition, the teacher SSRS inventory was utilized to assess the student's social skills. The teacher SSRS dependent measures included: cooperation, assertion, and self-control. The teacher SSRS inventories were also utilized to document student behavioral variables (externalizing, internalizing, hyperactivity, and total behaviors). Students were issued conduct grades (A, B, C, D, or F) from their classroom teachers and a school counselor. In addition, school wide suspension rates were analyzed from the years 1993 through 1996 to assess if systematic changes in suspensions could be detected across years in school.

Results: The differences in student ratings were found to be significant across genders with respect to cooperation, assertion, and empathy. Female students rated themselves higher on all three of these variables. Significant differences on the student ratings related to cooperation and assertion were also found across grade levels. It should be noted that both the assertion and cooperation mean scores decreased in each grade. That is to say that these social skills, as rated by the students, did not appear to develop with age. Differences were found in the teacher ratings across genders and there were significant grade by gender ordinal interaction effects. These gender differences could be attributed to the variables: cooperation, assertion, and self-control. The teachers rated the female students higher on the cooperation and self-control dependent measures. The teachers also reported the fifth grade females to be more assertive than the males. Author

Director: RONALD R. MORGAN

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-03A, Page 0724, 00118 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 98

Author: Roush, G.; Hall, E.

Year: 1993

Title: Teaching peaceful conflict resolution

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 11(2): 185-191

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 358

Author: Rozmus, Kelly

Year: 1997

Title: Peer Mediation Programs in Schools: Resolving Classroom Conflict but Raising Ethical Concerns?

Journal: Journal of Law and Education 26(4): 69-92

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ559477

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Accountability; Conflict Resolution; Discipline; Elementary Secondary Education; Ethics; Legal Problems; Program Evaluation; Quality Control; Research Needs

IDENTIFIERS: Peer Mediation

Abstract: Peer mediation programs' flexibility is their major strength and a potential weakness. The article examines positive and negative aspects of peer mediation programs; discusses implementation, evaluation, and funding mechanisms; and explores ethical

concerns, highlighting accessibility, acceptance, accountability, supervision, training, and quality-control issues. Although

preliminary reports overwhelmingly support PMPs' effectiveness in reducing violence and increasing self-esteem, more research is needed. (120 references) (MLH)

Notes: ERIC

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z END

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 299

Author: Safe Schools Center of the Palm Beach County School District

Year: 1995

Title: Capsule summary: Fighting fair for families follow-up survey

City: West Palm Beach, FL

Institution: Safe Schools Center

Notes: Reference from C.Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 300

Author: Safe Schools Center of the Palm Beach County School District

Year: 1998

Title: Discipline data analysis report for Olympic Heights high school

City: West Palm Beach, FL

Institution: Safe Schools Center

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 99

Author: Samuels, Fae

Year: 1998

Title: Ontario - Peer Mediation Changes a School's Culture

Journal: The Fourth R 82: 13

Keywords: multicultural setting, peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 359

Author: Schumacher, Bradley K.

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Conflict Strategies and Interpersonal Communicative Adaptability: Is There a Relationship?

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association

Conference Location: Baltimore, MD

Pages: 31

Date: April 10-13, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED417428

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Communication Research; Conflict Resolution; Higher Education; Interpersonal Communication; Organizational Communication; Personality Traits; Problem Solving; Social Behavior; Undergraduate Students; Work Experience

IDENTIFIERS: Communicative Adaptability; Communicator Motivation; Conflict Management Style; Supervisor Subordinate Relationship

Abstract: This study investigated subordinates' choice of conflict strategies and communicative adaptability when interacting with their supervisor. In particular, participants were asked to recall their summer work experience while completing the Organizational

Communication Conflict Instrument (OCCI) (Putnam & Wilson, 1982) and the Communicative Adaptability Scale (CAS) (Duran, 1983) in order to find out if those who are more adaptive use different strategies in organizational conflict situations. Subjects were 111 female and 36 male students of an undergraduate communication course at a midwest, four-year university. Participation was

anonymous. Results indicated that those who are more communicatively adaptive tend to use nonconfrontational strategies while those who are less adaptive tend to use more control strategies. Findings emphasize the importance of having a large behavioral repertoire of skills available to choose from when needed. (Contains a table of data and 56 references.) (Author/CR)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 360

Author: Schwartz, Wendy

Year: 1994

Title: Anti-Bias and Conflict Resolution Curricula: Theory and Practice

Pages: 4

Date: May 1994

Report Number: ERIC/CUE Digest No. 97

Call Number: ED3777255

Abstract: "The ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education recently conducted a survey to identify anti-bias projects providing services nationally to schools and organizations, and those with programs easily replicable by local educators. The result is A Directory of Anti-Bias Education Resources and Services, comprised of profiles of 52 such projects. This digest, based on the information provided for the directory describes the different programmatic approaches to bias reduction and violence prevention. " Author

Notes: ERIC

URL: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed377255.html

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 361

Author: Scott, Charles C.; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: Managing Diversity-Based Conflicts among Children. Fastback 414.

City: Bloomington, IN.

Institution: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation

Pages: 35

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED408407

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Cultural Differences; Cultural Pluralism; Diversity (Student); Educational Environment; Elementary Education; Interpersonal Relationship; Middle Schools; Minority Groups; Multicultural Education; Peer Relationship; Socialization; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods

IDENTIFIERS: Peace Education

Abstract: This guide is designed to provide assistance in handling complex situational conflicts involving diversity through appropriate conflict management strategies for diverse classrooms at the elementary and middle school levels. Diversity-based conflict is not new in the United States. The classroom is, as it has been historically, one of the major arenas for socialization. In addition to the traditional "three R's," students need to master the "R" of relationships, and teachers must help them accept diversity and learn to resolve conflict. Conflicts can be positive if they result in increased communication and understanding. Teacher communication with children is a critical element in promoting cultural harmony in any classroom. Teachers must also recognize their own cultural biases when communicating with students. They should try to model affirmation, appreciation, and acceptance for their students to create a supportive learning environment. The Peace Maintenance System described by L. Quigley and M. Zakierski (1997) and based on the Children's Creative Response to Conflict program (P. Prutzman, 1977) is an approach that enables students and teachers to create an environment in which mutual respect is paramount. Peer mediation is another approach by which conflict resolution is encouraged can be encouraged in the schools. (Contains 20 references.) (SLD)

Notes: ERIC; AVAILABILITY: Phi Delta Kappa, 408 N. Union, P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402-0789; telephone: (812) 339-1156

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 187

Author: SEVERSON, DAVID LOWEL

Year: 1997

Title: CLASS MEETINGS FOR BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AND STUDENT-CENTERED DISCIPLINE: A CASE STUDY (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: UNIVERSITY OF LA VERNE

Adviser: RON HOCKWALT

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9806293

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, GENERAL; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of current practices of Class Meetings in five elementary schools in north-central California, as well as the teacher perceptions, the antecedent conditions, and the dynamics in successful implementation, as one potential model for student-centered discipline.

Methodology. The research methodology for this dissertation was descriptive case study which was intended to become an interpretive case study given sufficient corroborating data. Data for this study were compiled using questionnaires with open-ended questions as well as personal interviews, observations, and focus groups.

Findings. Among school staff interviewed there was unanimous agreement that the Class Meeting strategy was essential to having a well-run classroom and an unwillingness to teach without the opportunity to use Class Meetings as part of their weekly routine. It appears that the initial training is sufficient for rote application of the protocols of Class Meetings. However, as teachers encounter various challenges in continuing the use of Class Meetings, there is additional need for advanced training in how to handle difficult situations as well as the need to understand philosophical positions which would lead to appropriate responses by the teachers. The use of Class Meetings school-wide seems to be a leveler of suspension rates. Four of the five had fewer than two dozen suspensions each year.

Conclusions and recommendations. The following comments are five conclusions with implications for action derived from the data collected in this study. (1) The effectiveness of the Class Meeting strategy has been affirmed. (2) Leadership must support the adoption and monitor consistent practice of Class Meetings school-wide. (3) School staff must be given permission to take the time needed for Class Meetings. (4) Communication may be needed for parent approval. (5) Teachers need to understand the benefit of a democratic process rather than an autocratic process of discipline control. It may be that additional training in the psychological grounding would bring more of the reluctant teachers into the active practitioner group. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-08A, Page 3013, 00130 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 301

Author: Slaby, R.; Wilson-Brewer, R.; Dash, K.

Year: 1994

Title: Aggressors, Victims and Bystanders: Thinking and Acting to Prevent Violence

City: Newton, MA

Publisher: Education Development Center

Notes: Reference from C.Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 302

Author: Slavin, R.E.

Year: 1992

Title: When and why does cooperative learning increase achievement? Theoretical and empirical perspectives

Editor: Hertz-Lazarowitz, R.; Miller, N.

Book Title: Interaction in Cooperative Groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning

City: New York

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Pages: 145-173

Notes: Reference from C. Diekmann

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 100

Author: Smith, Melinda

Year: 1991

Title: Mediation and the Juvenile Offender: New Programs and Approaches Address the Growing Crisis of Youth At-Risk

Journal: Update on Law-Related Education

Keywords: peer mediation

Abstract: This paper reports on the development of mediation programs as an alternative means of conflict resolution for young people. The information was largely obtained from the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution. The need for and the goals of youth mediation programs are discussed, citing individual success stories as a result of these programs. The paper also explains the distinction between prevention and intervention programs. There are descriptions of school, parent-child, victim-juvenile offender, and youth corrections mediation programs, including data that has been collected to measure the effectiveness of these programs. New directions in mediation and conflict resolution are discussed, particularly the development of gang-related dispute resolution and educational programs for juveniles and their parents as an alternative to incarceration. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 303

Author: Smith, M.

Year: 1996

Title: Strategies to Reduce School Violence: The New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution."

Editor: Hoffman, A.M.

Book Title: Schools, Violence and Society

City: Westport, CT

Publisher: Praeger

Pages: p. 256.

Abstract: "An evaluation report of the Mediation in Schools Program of the New Mexico Center for Dispute Resolution (NMCDR) reported that teachers in program schools noticed less violence and harmful behavior among students, whereas teachers in non-program schools noticed more violence. One Albuquerque elementary school principal reported that 'We were having 100 to 150 fights every month on the playground before we started the program. By the end of the school year, we were having maybe 10 [fights].' Other elementary schools using the same NMCDR program reported that playground fighting had been reduced to such an extent that peer mediators found themselves out of a job." Crawford, Donna and Richard Bodine Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings - Program Report, 1996. p. 69. See above.

Notes: Reference from D. Crawford

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 101

Author: Social Science Education Consortium, Inc.

Year: 1987

Title: Conflict resolution in the schools: final evaluation report

City: Boulder, CO

Institution: Social Science Education Consortium, Inc.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 362

Author: Soloman, D.

Year: 1991

Title: Evaluation of the Child Development Project: Summary of Findings to Date

: 14

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED339531

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Academic Achievement; Classroom Techniques; Cooperative Learning; Democratic Values; Discipline; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Family School Relationship; Interpersonal Competence; Program Evaluation; Program Implementation; Prosocial Behavior; Social Development; Teacher Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Child Development Project; Hayward Unified School District CA; San Ramon Valley Unified School District CA; Social Problem Solving

Abstract: This report describes the current status of evaluation findings for the Child Development Project (CDP), a project to bring about caring and responsible attitudes in students in kindergarten through grade 6. The program was begun in a suburban San Ramon, California school district in 1982, and has recently been introduced in urban, ethnically diverse Hayward, California. Classroom observations have indicated that teachers in classes using the program make greater use of developmental discipline and cooperative group learning; involve students more in helping activities; and promote prosocial values and interpersonal understanding more than teachers in nonprogram classrooms. Observations have also indicated that students in program classrooms exhibit more prosocial behavior than students in nonprogram classrooms, and that program classrooms are more harmonious than nonprogram classrooms. Interviews and questionnaires have indicated that students in program schools have better-developed conflict resolution skills and stronger democratic values than students in nonprogram schools. An appended description of the CDP explains the project's goal; summarizes the evaluation results; lists the key elements of CDP's classroom, schoolwide, and home-school programs; discusses the resources that are necessary for successful program implementation; and examines the reactions of teachers, administrators, and parents to the program. (BC)

Notes: ERIC; For related documents, see ED 308 974 and PS 020 147-149

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 363

Author: Solomon, Daniel; And Others ; PUBLICATION_DATE: 1989 Solomon, D.

Year of Conference: 1989

Title: Evaluation of the Child Development Project: Research Design, Procedures, and Findings

Conference Name: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Conference Location: San Francisco, CA

Pages: 25

Date: March 29, 1989

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED308974

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Academic Achievement; Comparative Analysis; Democratic Values; Elementary Education;

Elementary School Students; Individual Development; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; Program

Implementation; Prosocial Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Social Problem Solving

Abstract: Findings of an evaluation of the first 5 years of a longitudinal program designed to enhance children's prosocial development are reported. The program was offered for children in three elmentary schools in a suburban, middle-class district near San Francisco. Three schools in the same district served as a comparison group. Enrollment ranged from 450 to 650 students per school. The program's major aim was to determine whether a comprehensive, long-term program which was delivered primarily by teachers in classrooms and was reinforced by consistent and compatible school-wide policies and practices, family activities, and parental support could significantly strengthen prosocial characteristics in children. The research followed two longitudinal cohorts of children, each cohort consisting of all children at a particular grade level in the six schools. This paper focuses on children in the older cohort. These children began kindergarten in fall 1982 and completed fourth grade in spring 1987. Findings reported cover kindergarten through fourth grade. During each year of the program, data were collected to assess student behavior and the adequacy of program implementation in the classrooms. Analyses revealed strong and consistent program effects in several areas. In general, participation in the program enhanced students' social competence and concern for others. (RH)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 188

Author: SPARKMAN, LAVINIA BROWN

Year: 1995

Title: THE EFFECTS OF COUNSELING INTERVENTION IN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLE OF SEVENTH AND EIGHTH-GRADE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF BEHAVIORS OF STUDENTS

University: MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY

Major Professor: WARREN F. HOUSLEY

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9616478

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) what change in conflict management style would occur in 7th-and 8th-grade students who participated in a four-week guidance unit on conflict management, and (b) if there were differences in teachers' perceptions of the students' behavior before and eight weeks after the guidance unit was presented. A quasi-experimental nonrandomized control group pre-test/post-test design was employed to examine the conflict management style of 7th- and 8th-grade students. Participants were from a public middle school in Mississippi. The guidance unit consisted of a four-week, 20 lesson classroom guidance on conflict resolution. Lessons were presented to help students acquire the needed skills to resolve problems and disputes more constructively. The classroom guidance dealt with different types of situations that most 7th- and 8th-graders might deal with every day at school, at home, and in their community. Examples were presented to show that there are many options to resolving conflict. Role play, drawings, small group discussions, and large group discussions were employed to deliver these options. The analyses showed that of the management styles used by students in the 7th- and 8th-grade, avoidance, authority, smoothing, problem solving, and compromise, only authoritative conflict management changed. These students changed from a high level of authority management to a lower level of using the authoritative management style which meant they were beginning to exhibit more concern for others and less concern for self. The teachers' perceptions showed that the students' behavior improved during and after the guidance unit was completed. The analyses support the theory that conflict management style can be changed or modified in a positive direction by the use of guidance interventions. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-02A, Page 0592, 00145 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 189

Author: Spears, Gloria J.

Year: 1997

Title: Conflict Management Strategies and Peer Mediation: A Program to Train Second-, Third-, and Fifth-Grade Students and Teachers

Academic Dept.: National EdD Program for Educational Leaders

City: Washington, DC

University: Nova Southeastern University

Type of Work: A Practicum Report presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of EdD.

Keywords: elementary

Abstract: This project on conflict resolution and peer mediation was designed to train a small segment of 560 students in Head Start through 6th grade how to work cooperatively, use effective communication skills, develop a sense of values, and help others see the importance of using peaceful problem-solving solutions. Surveys...showed that the majority of the teachers spent between 60%-80% of instructional time dealing with disruptive classroom behavior. Many students were referred to the principal's office. The most frequent form of discipline used was out-of-school suspension.

Planned solution strategies included (a) an 18-week training program by the counselor in conflict resolution skills to one class each of 2nd-, 3rd- and 5th-grade students; (b) 8 weeks of training in peer mediation to 32 students selected by the 3 classroom teachers; and (c) weekly follow-up lessons by the teachers of the target population.

Among the 5th grade students involved in the project, 42% handled conflicts negatively prior to project intervention, and only 32% used negatively responses after the intervention. Among the 3rd graders, 24% handled conflict negatively prior to intervention, 8% afterwards. Among 2nd graders, 24% made negative responses to conflict prior to intervention, 11% afterwards. These data support other research finding that conflict resolution skills should be taught to young children. Children want and welcome change. Author

Notes: The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 364

Author: Speirs, Robert

Year: 1994

Title: Decreasing Suspensions in Grades Nine through Twelve through the Implementation of a Peace Curriculum

University: Nova University

Number of Pages: 78

Type of Work: Ed.D Practicum

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED378090

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Behavior Problems; Classroom Techniques; Conflict Resolution; Curriculum Development; Grade 10;

Grade 11; Grade 12; Grade 9; High School Students; High Schools; Peace; Role of Education; Self Esteem; Student

Behavior; Suspension

IDENTIFIERS: Peace Education

Abstract: This practicum was designed because out of school suspensions as a disciplinary procedure were not effective in changing students' behaviors. The students felt angry and rejected by the teachers, and they did not feel part of the school culture. The practicum offered a peace curriculum designed to be used in content academic areas, small groups, and with mentors. The study involved a peace curriculum that included problem-solving activities that encouraged students to develop alternatives to oppositional, defiant, and disruptive behaviors. The peace curriculum offered students the opportunity to participate in class discussion without the fear of failure. By preventing behaviors that emerged when students became frustrated because they did not know how to control their behaviors, the peace curriculum offered students the opportunity to develop fair and just attitudes. Analysis of the data revealed that out of 292 students referred for discipline, more than 83 students received an alternative form of discipline rather than out of school discipline or suspension. The cumulative number of out-of-school suspensions received by exceptional education students was reduced. The number of classroom teachers implementing behavior strategies in their classrooms increased because of the introduction of the peace curriculum. Nine appendices conclude the paper: (1) discipline system student listing; (2) teacher survey; (3) disciplinary referral form; (4) student assistance team response form; (5) lessons for mentors; (6) lessons for small groups; (7) content specific lessons for the classroom teacher; (8) mentor survey; and (9) rules for small group instruction. Contains 38 references. (Author/DK)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 190

Author: STANSKY, MARY THERESA

Year: 1993

Title: AN EVALUATION OF SPECIFIC STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE SCHOOL CLIMATE, STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT, AND STUDENT ATTENDANCE IN AN ALTERNATIVE SECONDARY SCHOOL: A CASE STUDY

University: RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW BRUNSWICK

ADVISER: Chairperson: LAWRENCE KAPLAN

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9328930

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Abstract: In this research quantitative and qualitative measures were employed to evaluate the implementation of specific strategies to improve organizational climate, student achievement, and student attendance in one school. The strategies were implemented in the dimensions of leadership and academic expectations and formulated from the core path dimension of self-concept. Improvement in organizational climate is dependent on the eight core path components of communication, mission statement, accountability, decision making, flexible scheduling, conflict resolution and problem solving. The case school was an alternative high school for emotionally disturbed and neurologically impaired adolescents. These students have a history of school failure and are identified as at risk both socially and academically. It was hypothesized that an improvement in the organizational climate of the school would effect an improvement in the students' achievement scores in reading and math and in the student attendance rate. The quantitative measures included the NASSP Teacher and Student Satisfaction Surveys and the OCDQ-RS Climate Survey. The reading, math and attendance measures were taken from the final progress reports of the school year and compared with those of the previous year. The qualitative measures were collected through faculty interviews. A preliminary synthesis of research had identified eight components of the core path as means of improvement in the organizational self-concept. The core path dimension seemed to be a successful outline from which to develop specific strategies that would result in an improved self-concept and an improved organizational climate.

Results:The results indicated that development and implementation of specific strategies were not instrumental to an overall improvement in organizational climate or student achievement as measured by the reading and math scores. The decline in student attendance, however, seemed to indicate a relationship to the strategies implemented, and leadership style, in particular, was found to be a significant influence on the organizational climate. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 54-05A, Page 1627, 00273 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 191

Author: STEEN, CAROLENA GUIRAL

Year: 1944

Title: SCHOOL-BASED MEDIATION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S SELF-CONCEPT AND MEDIATION SKILL MASTERY LEVELS (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: WALDEN UNIVERSITY

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9526505

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: School-based mediation programs have flourished throughout the United States as a response to conflict and disciplinary problems in schools, the deterioration of democratic values and the immense social problems that permeated school systems. Evidence of their success, however, is usually measured by equivocal methods, among them decreased discipline referrals and overall school climate. Little research exists regarding the effectiveness of school-based mediation programs.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based program through examining the impact of learning and practicing mediation skills on student mediators' self-concept and mediation skill mastery level. A review of the literature reveals that, while the history of theories of conflict resolution is long, quantifiable evidence is difficult to find. While there is significant evidence for the efficacy of school-based mediation programs, such strong indicators of success as student self-concept and level of skill mastery seem to have been overlooked. These, however, are significant predictors of student success. This study examined fourth and fifth grade students exposed to a conflict resolution curriculum through an affective education program. All students were administered a pretest prior to the conflict resolution instruction and a post-test self-concept questionnaire using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. A select group of students were selected by their peers through a sociogram to undergo intense mediation training. A control group was selected that matched the mediators' pretest scores, gender, and ethnicity. Post-test scores were compared with respect to overall gains made. The mediator experimental group also underwent a performance assessment evaluation in which a trained mediator panel rated each mediator based on predetermined criteria. An ANOVA of gain scores indicated significant main effects for the experimental group. There were no significant effects between the identified ethnic groups or between females and males with respect to self-concept gain in the experimental group. A small sample size may have attributed to these results. A Pearson's product moment correlation (r) was computed to determine the reliability amongst raters on the skills identified on the mediation rubric designed for this study. There were significant correlations within each of the five skills: understanding conflict, communication, conflict analysis, facilitation process and problem-solving. Although there was some disagreement at the skill level, the raters' overall scores were quite similar. In summary, this study attempted to empower students to become contributing members of society by teaching them problem-solving and critical- thinking skills basic to the mediation process. The mediation skills of understanding conflict, communication, conflict analysis, the facilitation process and problem-solving have the potential of empowering students to deal with the deterioration of democratic values and the intense and immense social issues and problems that they will encounter in their life time. The question is whether education values these skills and the need to teach these skills enough to support and sponsor school-based mediation programs. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-04A, Page 1328, 00144 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 102

Author: Stephens, John B.

Year: 1993

Title: A Better Way to Resolve Disputes

Journal: School Safety(Winter, 1993): 12-14

Abstract: This report by the research director for the Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management gives a project overview and outlines project goals.

Lessons learned from the interviews with selected teachers, administrators, students and parents in the demonstration schools: immediate results showed that student mediators enhanced their problem-solving skills; the expectations of most program coordinators' conflict management programs were met; program coordinators found their work rewarding, but most spent more time than expected, using all their skills and diligence to make things work well; successful program start-up depends on understanding and support from administrators and teachers; concerns about continued funding for conflict management programs are more acute when there is a lack of administrative support; continuation of conflict management programs can be jeopardized when they are directed by a sole coordinator.

Recommendations: begin by conducting an assessment of the school's needs to determine whether a conflict management program will be useful; actively seek the involvement of people who play different roles in children's education and reflect the cultural diversity of the school; collaborate closely with administrators to help ensure success of the conflict management program; enhance program effectiveness through linking conflict management to other teaching practices; collect information to evaluate whether the conflict management program meets its goals and objectives without wider involvement. Anecdotal school evaluation results outlined. MB

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 304

Author: Stevahn, L.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, R.

Year: 1996

Title: Effects on High School Students of Integrating Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training into an Academic Unit.

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 14(1): 21-37

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 305

Author: Stevahn, L., Johnson, D., Johnson, R., Green, K., & Laginski, A.

Year: 1997

Title: Effects on high school students of conflict resolution training integrated into English literature

Journal: The Journal of Social Psychology 137(3): 302-315.

Notes: Reference in Heinecken and Gromko

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 192

Author: STEVENS, REBECCA LOUISE

Year: 1998

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION EDUCATION IN CLASSROOMS: THE INTERSECTION OF EDUCATORS, AN INSERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM, AND A CURRICULUM

University: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY

Adviser: BURSTYN, JOAN N.

Number of Pages: 286

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAT 9907623

Keywords: Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

Abstract: This applied research study examines how six educators who participated in the Community Mediation Bureau's fifteen hour training program for the Conflict Solvers curriculum understood and used the curriculum. The Conflict Solvers is a kindergarten through third grade conflict resolution education curriculum. There are five components to the curriculum: capable, contribute, connect, communicate, and conflict resolution. This study is based on data from interviews, participant observation, and a review of the curriculum. I interviewed six educators who participated in the training. I also interviewed two principals and one social worker to get their perspective on conflict resolution education in the schools. I was a participant observer of the training program. I reviewed the Conflict Solvers curriculum and the training handbook. The educators I interviewed indicated that they were practicing the capable, contribute, connect, communicate aspects of the Conflict Solvers before the training. It was in these areas that they made changes in their practice because of the training. They did not indicate that they added conflict theory to their practice nor did they use activities from the curriculum. From my analysis of the data I concluded that there were certain limitations to the training that prevented the teachers from more completely using the curriculum. The limitations I identified were that the training did not provide the teachers with a level of competence with the language to be adept and confident to use the activities. The similarities and differences between the Conflict Solvers and other programs were not explored and teachers were concerned about the larger social-economic issues that, they felt, affected students who were particularly problematic. From this data and analysis I recommend that the teacher training be modified. I suggest using a model that is elicitive drawing on participants implicit knowledge, and enabling them to reflect on their practice and beliefs. I also recommend that further research be done on conflict resolution education in urban settings. Author

Notes: DAI-A 59/09, p. 3411, Mar 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 365

Author: Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.; Hinitz, Blythe F.

Year of Conference: 1998

Title: Integration of Peace Education Conflict Resolution with the Arts and Humanities: A New Agenda for a New Century.

Conference Name: Annual Conference of the Eastern Educational Research Association

Conference Location: Tampa, FL

Pages: 24

Date: February 1998

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED421226

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Aesthetic Values; Art Education; Conflict Resolution; Cultural Awareness; Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Educational Change; Educational Innovation; Elementary School Curriculum; Humanities Instruction; Peace; Preschool Curriculum; Prosocial Behavior

IDENTIFIERS: Peace Education

Abstract: This paper discusses the integration of peace education into early childhood education through the arts and humanities curricula, considering several pedagogical developments which indicate a more favorable climate for this integration, including: (1) aesthetic literacy programs, including peace museums and the role of children's literature; (2) neuroscience developments such as whole brain learning which recognizes the importance of infant and early childhood development; (3) interdisciplinary experiences within an integrated curriculum framework; (4) social/affective education beginning with early childhood; (5) ecological and social responsibility as an expression of the integration of learning in science and social studies; (6) technological literacy; (7) cultural contexts for learning; and (8) spiritual and philosophical hopes for humanity expressed as goals for the new century. The paper argues that these new insights hold the promise of addressing humanity's most perplexing problem: how to resolve conflicts and live in peace and harmony in our culturally diverse society. Contains 75 references. (JPB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 193

Author: STONE, LORENA MAY

Year: 1984

Title: EXPLORING INTERPERSONAL PEACE CONCEPTS, EXEMPLARY LITERATURE, AND PEACE EDUCATION RESOURCES FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOL ENGLISH CLASSROOM

University: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK

Type of Work: Dissertation, Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG8508542

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, SECONDARY; infusion

Abstract: The urgency of peace is being felt by increasing numbers of people as they become cognizant of the complexities of living in a world poised for war; yet, peace education is almost nonexistent in elementary and secondary schools. A lack of clarity of definition, goals, and approaches has added to the complexity of developing peace education curricula for these students.

This study explored the feasibility for the development of a secondary level literature course for the English classroom to support the theme of peace education, based on the identification of interpersonal peace concepts worthy of being taught, the identification of a body of exemplary literature appropriate to a secondary level English class, and the identification of the availability of supplementary resources for teaching peace. Six national peace education leaders deemed the following interpersonal peace concepts as most worthy of being taught to the secondary school student: conflict resolution, social justice, global awareness, nonviolence, and world community. These five concepts were adopted for the remainder of the study. Recommended literary works from the genres of short story, poetry, novel, and drama were rated by three secondary school teachers of English and five supervisors of English on the criteria of "literary merit," "exemplifies concept," "interest level," "reading level," and "availability." Fifty-one selections judged as appropriated for use with secondary school students of English were annotated by the researcher as a resource for teachers. A list of thirty-seven organizations and thirty-one print resources for teaching peace was compiled by the researcher on the basis of her examination of peace education materials and the recommendations of peace education leaders.

It was concluded that the development of a secondary level literature course for the English classroom is feasible, there is appropriate literature for teaching interpersonal peace concepts, and supplementary materials and information exist to support the teaching of peace. Recommendations for practice and further research include designing a course of study structured on the information provided in this dissertation and testing the efficacy of such a course. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 46-03A, Page 0669, 00222 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 103

Author: Strickland, Stephen P.; Prutzman, Priscilla; Blakeway, Marsha S.; Warren, Brad; Lowenthal, Jane F.; Diekmann, Cathy

Year: 1995

Title: Conflict Resolution in Urban American Schools Systems

City: Washington, D.C.

Institution: National Peace Foundation

Pages: 170

Date: September 1995

Type: survey report

Keywords: conflict resolution education/training, peer mediation, system-wide

Abstract: In general what was found in most jurisdictions is a mixed pattern of activity. Very few schools districts or systems consistently provide conflict resolution education for elementary, middle school and high school students. Rather, conflict resolution education programs are more typically carried out on a school-by-school basis, with many being supported in part by schools systems and schools boards but with may others having subsidies and contribution from other sources. P. 4 In Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area (including suburban Maryland and Virginia ) School systems 5080 (1.07%) of a possible 472,800 students were estimated by their school systems as being trained as mediators in 1993-1994 school year; 86,000 (18%) of possible 472,800 attended curriculum based classes with conflict resolution components. MB

Notes: +National Peace Foundation, Washington, DC; 202-223-1770

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 366

Author: Stuart, Lora Alexa

Year: 1991

Title: Conflict Resolution Using Mediation Skills in the Elementary Schools

: 90

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED333258

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Critical Thinking; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Problem

Solving; Program Effectiveness; Self Esteem; Skill Development; Student Responsibility

IDENTIFIERS: Mediation

Abstract: While conflict resolution programs in the elementary schools have been in existence for the last decade, few studies have provided quantitative data concerning the effectiveness of such programs. A study was conducted which used interviews and surveys to focus on the development, implementation, and results of a Conflict Manager program at one elementary school. Possibilities for mediation in schools without formal programs were also considered. This paper presents the results of this study and traces the history of the mediation program at Greer Elementary School in Charlottesville, Virginia. It discusses how and why the program was started, lists major goals of the program, and explains the pilot project which involved third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students. The training of personnel is described and the basic format for mediation is presented in outline format. Feedback obtained from questionnaires and interviews from the student mediators, the general student body, and the faculty at Greer Elementary School is discussed. This descriptive feedback supported the conflict resolution programs as a viable way of reducing tension; enhancing student self-esteem; increasing student responsibility; increasing instructional time; and improving the skills involved in effective problem solving, communication, teamwork, and critical thinking. Other options for mediation in schools are suggested. Extensive appendixes include learning activities, survey forms, and student handouts. (48 references) (NB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 194

Author: SWEENEY, BRIAN CLARK

Year: 1995

Title: PEER MEDIATION TRAINING: DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS FOR HIGH SCHOOL MEDIATORS

University: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Chair: EDWIN R. GERLER, JR.

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAI9606345

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; PSYCHOLOGY, DEVELOPMENTAL; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract: This study investigated the cognitive developmental effects of a peer mediation training program on high school students randomly assigned to a treatment group from a class of peer tutors. The independent variable of interest, the peer mediation training program, included sixteen weekly one-hour training sessions which focused on communication and organizational skills specifically related to a mediation environment. Dependent variables of interest included: (1) moral reasoning, as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT; Rest, 1979); (2) conceptual development, as measured by the Paragraph Completion Method (PCT; Hunt, Butler, Noy, & Rosser, 1978); (3) characteristic behavior toward others, as measured by the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-B (FIRO-B; Schutz, 1978); and, (4) self-esteem, as measured by the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965). T-test results of treatment group gains on posttests were not significantly different from those of a comparison group of tutors not trained in mediation (p > .05), but the results suggested a trend. Further statistical analysis uncovered possibly significant treatment group change in three areas on the FIRO-B (Control/Expressed; Affection/Expressed; Affection/Wanted). Supplemental paired t-tests revealed within-group gains for the treatment group on the PCT (p = .002), and FIRO-B (Inclusion/Wanted, p =.06; Control/Expressed, p =.03; Control/Sum, p =.02; Affection/Wanted, p =.02; Affection/Sum, p =.05). Gains for the comparison group on the DIT (p =.008) and PCT (p .05) were also revealed using within-group t-tests.

Conclusions based upon the change scores reported in this study should be interpreted cautiously. However, the possible significance of within-group gain scores does point to a limitation in the design of the study (using only two groups). Investigators are encouraged to employ the use of at least three groups for research studies with students drawn from a similar population of peer helpers. Qualitative support for peer mediation was evident in the narratives solicited from faculty and students, and in the number of successful mediations conducted. The efficacy of mediation as an alternative strategy for resolving disputes in schools is well-established. Investigators are urged to address issues of mediation process, cognitive change and the mediation environment in future research endeavors. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-11A, Page 4285, 00218 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 195

Author: THEBERGE, SUSAN K.

Year: 1996

Title: STUDY OF A MEDIATION PROGRAM IN A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (CONFLICT RESOLUTION)

University: UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS

Director: JANINE ROBERTS

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9639040

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

Abstract: This research project was a descriptive study of a peer mediation program in a junior high school of approximately one thousand students from 21 different nationalities. The focus was on discovering what factors inhibit and what factors encourage the use of mediation by the students in this school. Using qualitative methodology, 20 students, 12 faculty members, and eight parents from this school community were interviewed by the researcher. Surveys were filled out by 58 students, 57 parents, and 23 faculty members. The major criterion used in selecting interview and survey questions was whether or not the question contributed to a systemic understanding of the factors that inhibit or encourage students' use of the mediation program. Perspectives from different parts of the system were elicited by asking similar questions of parents, students, and faculty. After presenting a brief summary of the factors encouraging the use of mediation, the six key factors revealed by the data to be inhibiting the use of mediation were analyzed. The six factors included students' attitudes, feelings, and behaviors regarding mediation; student methods of handling conflict; attitudes, feelings, and behaviors of students in school; school dynamics; factors related to the mediation of program and societal issues. Each of these factors was analyzed for emergent themes and was illuminated through the words of the student parents, and faculty who participated in this study.

The findings illustrate the ways in which conflict resolution within a school is influenced by the climate or atmosphere of the school and in turn influences this climate or atmosphere. The six factors inhibiting the use of mediation in this school were explored within the context of both the climate of the school and the larger society. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-07A, Page 2957, 00271 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 104

Author: Tolan, P.; Guerra, N.

Year: 1994

Title: What works in reducing adolescent violence: an empirical review of the field

City: Boulder, CO

Institution: The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado

Date: 1994, July

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 306

Author: Tolsen, E.R.; McDonald, S. ; Moriarty, A.

Year: 1990

Title: Peer Mediation Among High School Students: A Test of Effectiveness

City: Chicago, IL

Institution: Center for Urban Research and Development, University of Illinois

Abstract: "Evaluation of a mediation program in a suburban Chicago high school indicated positive results. Researchers testing the hypothesis that 'mediation is an effective alternative to traditional discipline' found that mediation was more effective than traditional discipline in reducing the number of interpersonal conflicts. The researchers also reported that the majority of disputants and student mediators were very satisfied with all aspects of the mediation." Crawford, Donna and Richard Bodine Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings - Program Report, 1996. p 69. See above.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 307

Author: Tolsen, E.; McDonald, S.; Moriarty, A.

Year: 1992

Title: Peer Mediation Among High School Students: A Test of Effectiveness

Journal: Social Work in Education 14(2): 86-92

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

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Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 308

Author: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice

Year: 1998

Title: 1998 Annual Report on School Safety

City: Washington, DC

Institution: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice

Pages: 60

Date: 10/01/1998

Abstract: Describes the nature and extent of crime and violence on school property. This report shows the measures that some schools have taken to prevent or address school violence and provides parents, students, and educators with information and resources to evaluate and enhance their own school's level of safety. It includes profiles of schools that have put in place programs and strategies that include school security, school-wide education in violence prevention, counseling, and specialized student services. Includes letter from Richard W. Riley, Secretary of Education, and Janet Reno, Attorney General.

URL: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/AnnSchoolRept98/

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 309

Author: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice

Year: 1999

Title: 1999 Annual Report on School Safety

URL: http://www.ed.gov/PDFDocs/InterimAR.pdf

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 105

Author: Uhlenberg, D.M.; Antes, J.R.; Thompson, J.J. .

Year of Conference: 1993

Title: The Effects of a non-violent conflict resolution curriculum on the behavior of fourth graders

Conference Name: National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution (NCPCR)

Conference Location: Portland, OR

Date: June 1993

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Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 106

Author: Van Slyck, M.R.; Stern, M.

Year: 1991

Title: Conflict resolution in educational settings: assessing the impact of peer mediation programs

Editor: Duffy, K.; Olczack, P.; Grosch, J.

Book Title: The Art and Science of Community Mediation: A Handbook for Practitioners and Researchers

City: New York, NY

Publisher: Guilford Press

Pages: 257 - 274

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 107

Author: Van Slyck, M.R.; Stern, M. ; Newland, L.M.

Year: 1992

Title: Parent-child mediation: an empirical assessment

Journal: Mediation Quarterly 10(175-88)

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 108

Author: Van Slyck, M.R.; Newland, L.M.; Stern, M.

Year: 1992

Title: Parent-child mediation: integrating theory, research, and practice

Journal: Med. Quarterly 10(2): 193-208

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 310

Author: Van Slyck, M.; Stern, M.; Zak-Place

Year: 1996

Title: Promoting optimal development through conflict resolution education, training, and intervention: An innovative approach for counseling psychologists.

Journal: The Counseling Psychologist 24: 433-461

Notes: Reference in Cardella and Van Slyck

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 311

Author: Van Slyck, Michael; Stern, Marilyn

Year: 1999

Title: A Developmental Approach to the Use of Conflict Resolution Interventions with Adolescents

Editor: Harris, Ian; Forcy, Linda

Book Title: Peacebuilding for Adolescents

City: New York

Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing

Notes: Peter Lang Publishing; 800-770-7706; www.peterlang.com

 

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 312

Author: Van Slyck, Michael; Stern, Marilyn; Elbedour, Salman

Year: 1999, In press

Title: Adolescent Attitudes Toward Conflict: Correlates, Consequences and Cross Cultural Issues

Editor: Raviv, Amiram; Oppenheimer, Louis; Bar-Tall, Dani

Book Title: Children and Adolescents Concepts of War, Peace and Conflict: An International Perspective

City: Lexington, MA

Publisher: New Lexington Press

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 367

Author: Vanayan, Marina; And Others

Year: 1997

Title: Would You Like To Be a Peer Mediator? Willingness To Be a Peer Mediator among Elementary Students: Effects of Grade and Gender.

Journal: Alberta Journal of Educational Research 43(1): 57-60

Call Number: ERIC_NO: EJ541721

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Conflict Resolution; Elementary School Students; Females; Foreign Countries; Intermediate Grades; Males; Peer Counseling; Student Attitudes

IDENTIFIERS: Ontario (Toronto); Peer Mediation

Abstract: A survey of 210 students in grades 5-7 in six Toronto (Canada) schools found that students' willingness to serve as peer mediators declined significantly between fifth and seventh grades. There were no significant differences by gender in willingness to

participate. (SV)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 196

Author: VERMILLION, ARTHUR GUALE

Year: 1989

Title: PERCEPTIONS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION EDUCATION: A DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE STUDY

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

Type of Work: Ed.D. Dissertation

Accession Number: ACCESSION NO.: AAG8921921

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; administrators, conflict resolution, education/training, multiple schools, peer mediation

Abstract: The major purpose was to assess perceptions of public school administrators about attitudes and behavior of students receiving conflict resolution education. Data were collected from school administrators to assess their unique perspectives and observations, both subjective and objective, pertaining to their overview of the effects of the Mediation In the Schools Program (MISP) Procedure. A quasi-ethnographic, scheduled standardized interview instrument was used, with field notes and tape recordings, with nineteen administrators (three elementary schools, three middle/junior high schools, and three high schools), who implemented MISP during the school year 1987-88, in various school districts in the State of New Mexico. Similarly, the same process was used in data collection among ten administrators (four elementary schools, three middle/junior high schools, and three high schools), who did not implement MISP, also in various school districts in the State of New Mexico.

Conclusions. On the basis of the findings, the following conclusions were made: (1) Elementary, middle/junior high, and high school administrators confirmed that MISP did effect a positive difference in the attitudes and behavior of students. (2) Administrators of all MISP schools, all levels, found either a lessened amount of conflict and/or an increase in students' ability to engage in conflict resolution effectively. (3) Administrators of all MISP schools reported that students were doing more of their own conflict resolution, through peer mediation, than they were doing prior to MISP: either through conflict managers in elementary schools or through mediation teams in middle/junior high schools and in high schools. Author

Notes: Dissertation Abstracts: DAI, VOL. 50-06A, Page 1552, 00396 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 313

Author: Volpe, Maria R.

Year: 1994

Title: An Urban University-Based Conflict Resolution Program

Journal: Education and Urban Society 27(1): 22-34

Abstract: "This article has examined how university-based conflict resolution efforts can transcend the insular nature of the ivory tower and, in partnership with interested members of the urban environs, can help to set the tone for a culture of resolving conflicts that promotes a set of core beliefs committed to collaborative problem solving. Further systematic research, however, is needed to address the many interesting and important development emerging from many new conflict resolution developments on urban campuses. As participant observers of their own university experiences, academics can begin to generate data by writing about their work. ... The potential for urban university-based conflict resolution efforts is enormous and still largely untapped." From the author's conclusions.

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Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 109

Author: Wall, J.A.., Jr.; Lynn, A.

Year: 1993

Title: Mediation a current review

Journal: Journal of Conflict Resolution 37(1): 160-194

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 197

Author: WALSH, COLLEEN HEALY

Year: 1992

Title: AN EXAMINATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF A SOCIAL SKILLS PROGRAM WITH KINDERGARTENERS

University: STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT ALBANY

Type of Work: Dissertation PSY.D.

Accession Number: AAG9305989

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; PSYCHOLOGY, GENERAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: A program evaluation was conducted which examined the ecological validity of the Developing Understanding of Self and Others-Revised (DUSO-R) program. The concept of ecological validity in this study comes from Trickett's (1984) definition, and involves investigating the environment in which the social skills program takes place in order to determine what resources are available and how to best utilize them to increase program success. This study was an attempt to add to the research on social skills training, more specifically to DUSO-R training, by relating program implementation and support to the program's effectiveness in teaching and generalizing skills. Kindergarteners who were exposed to the DUSO-R program were compared to kindergarteners who did not participate in any formal social skills training program. Both groups were assessed in September and again in January regarding their knowledge and use of social skills concepts. Children in each school completed the DUSO-AD, which measures knowledge of DUSO concepts, and teachers rated their students social skills and problem behaviors in the SSRS. Kindergarteners were also videotaped over two week periods in September and January and the tapes were analyzed to determine if social skills concepts were used by children and teachers in the resolution of interpersonal conflicts. Information regarding the implementation and support of program concepts, in addition to teacher attitudes about social skills training, were collected through interviews, questionnaires, daily checklists, and observations. Large differences were not found between the two groups on the DUSO-AD, the SSRS, or in conflict resolutions on the videotapes. There were significant differences, however, in the composition of the two groups (e.g. age, developmental age) which may partially explain why differences were not found on outcome measures. In addition, data on teacher attitudes, program implementation and support were used to interpret why differences between the groups were not found. Implications of this study for practitioners and for future research are offered. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 54-01A, Page 0085, 00108 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 314

Author: Warters, William C.

Year: 1999

Title: Graduate Studies in Dispute Resolution: A Delphi Study of the Field's Present and Future

Journal: OJPCR: The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution( Issue 2.2)

Call Number: ISSN 1522-211X

URL: www.trinstitute.org/ojpcr/

Reference Type: Electronic Source

Record Number: 315

Author: Warters, William

Year: 1999

Title: Campus Mediation Resources

Producer: William Warters

Type of Medium: Web Site

URL: http://www.mtds.wayne.edu/campus.htm

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 110

Author: Washington Community Violence Prevention Program

Year: 1992

Title: Washington Community Violence Prevention Program Project Summary

City: Washington, DC

Institution: The Trauma Service, Washington Hospital Center

Pages: 9 + support documents

Date: 1992

Type: program description

Keywords: violence prevention

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 198

Author: WATTS, IVAN EUGENE

Year: 1998

Title: VIOLENCE AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN UNDERCLASS YOUTH (INNER CITY, ADOLESCENTS, PREVENTION)

University: UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

Chair: MARVIN J. BERLOWITZ

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9835803

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; BLACK STUDIES; SOCIOLOGY, THEORY AND METHODS

Abstract: The focus of this study is on the violence among African American Underclass Youth (AAUY). The AAUY is based upon William Julius Wilson's construct of the "underclass" which serves to illustrate the effects of the impoverished conditions of the urban poor. Johan Galtung's concept of structural violence will help form the foundation in which structural discontinuity and disputatiousness can be sufficient attributes to the discussion of violence among African American Underclass Youth. I also introduce a three category taxonomy which emphasizes biological determinism, psychological explanations and structural violence. William Ryan's concept of the "hydraulics of misery" which is a victim-blaming theory will be central to the explanation for youth violence. This will set the foundation to make the case that the emphasis on biological determinism constitutes a new chapter in the history of scientific racism.

The objective then will be to develop an alternative theoretical model to explain the violence African American Underclass Youth. This theory will integrate William Cross's racial identity model as well as the concepts of colonization and decolonization. Selective works by Frantz Fanon, W. E. B. Dubois, Marcus Garvey and others will be central to this theory. Also, the theory will constitute a significant contribution to the knowledge base of conflict resolution and violence prevention. Finally, I will briefly introduce Deborah Prothrow-Stith's, M.D., violence prevention program for urban adolescents as a recommendation for further research. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-05A, Page 1476, 00136 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 111

Author: Webster, Daniel W.

Year: 1993

Title: The unconvincing case for school-based conflict resolution programs for adolescents

Journal: Health Affairs Journal 12: 127-141

Keywords: conflict resolution, violence prevention, several cities

Abstract: This commentary proposes that school-based conflict resolution programs are not effective as a public health strategy to reduce violence. The following reasons are given for the skepticism of these programs: 1) There is no evidence that such programs produce long-term changes in violent behavior;

2) The absence of other supporting interventions have caused these programs to fail to produce behavior changes for other health and social problems among youth; 3) The assumptions regarding conflict resolution programs and violence are questionable; and 4) The programs provide political cover for politicians, bureaucrats, and school officials and distract the public from the structural determinants of youth violence. These points are supported by a more in-depth critique of a number of programs, including Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents, the Washington Community Violence Prevention Program (WCVPP), and the Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), among others. Webster challenges the basic premises of conflict resolution programs and then lists the potential dangers of promoting these programs.

Recommendations: The following are suggested as a more effective way to address adolescent violence: 1) Fund long-term evaluations to measure effectiveness of the programs; 2) Restructure program content to account for the developmental stage of the student group; 3) Intensify and broaden interventions to produce significant behavior change; 4) Focus on the broader environment in which the youth live; and 5) Reduce availability of guns to address the epidemic of gun violence. MS

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 199

Author: WEITZMAN, EBEN ARIEH

Year: 1994

Title: EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION ON ALIENATION VIA LOCUS-OF-CONTROL AND VICTIMIZATION

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Sponsor: MORTON DEUTSCH

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9421413

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, SECONDARY; EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: Alienation has long been understood to be an important, destructive phenomenon, with profound effects on racism, suicide, valuation and pursuit of education, child abuse, and commitment and motivation to work. The current field study attempts to demonstrate that such key social-psychological constructs as locus of control, victimization, and interpersonal effectiveness can have a direct impact on the individual's sense of alienation. Further, it attempts to show that interventions of conflict resolution training and cooperative learning, by developing stronger interpersonal skills, and providing experiences of positive (cooperative) interdependence, both in conflict and group-work situations, can operate on these key psychological constructs in such a manner as to reduce alienation. Three campuses of an alternative New York City high school, which will be referred to as Alternative High School (AHS), agreed to participate in a two year longitudinal study with the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR) under the direction of Morton Deutsch. Campus A received conflict resolution training only, Campus C received cooperative learning training only, and Campus B received both cooperative learning and conflict resolution. A causal model is proposed in which the interventions lead to improvement in interpersonal relations, which brings about a decrease in the sense of victimization, a more internal locus of control, and a sense of a more trusting, cohesive social climate at the school. These variables, in turn, are predicted to decrease the individual's feeling of alienation. The data are analyzed as a path model using the LISREL program, version 7.16, by Joreskog and Sorbom (1989a). The individual effects proposed in the model are confirmed by the data, and goodness of fit tests support the overall fit of the model. Additional, supplementary, analyses are reported which provide further support for the causal directions proposed in the model. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-03B, Page 1226, 00133 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Conference Proceedings

Record Number: 368

Author: Westerman, Michael A.; And Others

Year of Conference: 1997

Title: Interpersonal Defense: School-Aged Children's Understanding of the Effects of Conflict and Feed Forward Consequences

Conference Name: Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (62nd)

Conference Location: Washington, DC

Pages: 24

Date: April 3-6, 1997

Call Number: ERIC_NO: ED408028

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: Academically Gifted; Age Differences; Children; Comparative Analysis; Conflict Resolution; Coping; Discourse Analysis; Elementary Education; Interaction; Interpersonal Relationship

IDENTIFIERS: New York City Board of Education

Abstract: This study used an interpersonal model of defense to examine children's understanding of how defense affects ongoing interactions. Participating were 62 New York City public school children, ages 7 to 8 years and 10 to 11 years, who were identified as intellectually gifted. Students were asked to respond to structured questions about interpersonal interactions with a teacher or a peer presented in a storyboard format in either high- or low-conflict versions, with defensive responses operationalized as an unmarked shift in topic or an unmarked negation of a prior statement. The results indicated that older participants, but not younger subjects, anticipated greater defensiveness in high-conflict situations. There was considerable support for hypotheses about children's understanding of how defense affects ongoing interactions. Nondefensive responses were viewed as more likely than defensive statements to lead to both wished-for and feared interaction consequences. No significant relations were found between teacher reported assessments of participants' behavior problems and the measure of their understanding of interpersonal defense. Overall, the findings suggested that bright school-age children have an understanding of the functional role played by defensive behavior in interpersonal interactions. (Appendices contain the stories used in the assessment.) (Author/KDFB)

Notes: ERIC

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 200

Author: WESTHEIMER, MIRIAM YAEL

Year: 1989

Title: THE STRUCTURING OF CONFLICT EVENTS IN AN URBAN HIGH SCHOOL

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9013581

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION

Abstract: A classroom specifically designed for students labeled long term absentees in an urban high school provides the setting for this ethnographic study. The theoretical framework starts with the basic premises of symbolic interactionism (Mead, 1934; Blumer, 1969). Concepts central to symbolic interactionism--meaning, interaction and interpretation--are used to provide a theory-based methodological perspective. Critical theory and social order as part of a school's hidden curriculum combine to form the theoretical foundation. The study focuses on teenagers and adults in various school settings, the interactions and ways in which they negotiate their existing social order. Rather than look at classroom organization and social order as a product to be observed, examined and recorded, this study views social order as a process that results from interaction, negotiation and mediation. The purpose of this study is to begin to understand that process. Data were collected in a manner consistent with the methodological implications of the theoretical perspective. The data are categorized into four general groups: ethnographic interviews, participant observation, collection of site documents and responses to a posed hypothetical situation. Data were analyzed by finding conflict as a salient theme; identifying vignettes with a focused conflict; examining one in great detail; finding and elaborating on a pattern of social interaction; and examining the structural pattern with other data sources. Conflict events were found to have various identifiable moments. They begin with a confrontation and are followed by a reaction which turns into verbal banter, labeled by students as a dis. An intervention takes place which is described by defining the actor, the form and whether the intervention is with or without respect. Audience is a highly significant aspect of a conflict event. The event has a resolution--a fight or not a fight. The type of intervention and the presence of an audience are shown to be critical components in predicting the resolution of a conflict event. Implications for school programs, specifically conflict mediation programs, are drawn and several research questions are posed as an outgrowth of these findings. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 50-12A, Page 3842, 00178 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 316

Author: Whang, Gail

Year: 1994

Title: Conflict Resolution in the Oakland Public Schools

Journal: The Fourth R 52: 25

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 201

Author: WHEELER, EDYTH JAMES

Year: 1994

Title: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PEER CONFLICTS

University: GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY

Director: JOAN P. ISENBERG

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9435000

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD; EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF

Abstract: In a world of increasing violence, peer conflict is a growing concern. Practitioners hope to maintain a peaceful classroom and help children learn conflict resolution strategies. Several theories represent peer conflict as a complex social interaction which contributes to children's development. This qualitative study was designed to (1) describe the process of children's naturally occurring conflicts among three- to five-year-olds in a preschool play setting, (2) investigate children's explicit meanings in conflicts, and (3) explore children's conflicts in the context of the preschool culture. The study asked, What is happening in young children's peer conflicts that result in mutually agreeable, child-generated resolutions?"

The data collection included videotaped observations of children's play activities, ethnographic field notes, and interviews with children. In the analysis, 206 videotaped conflict situations were described according to their structural characteristics (issues, strategies, and outcomes), contextual characteristics (level of social play, number of participants, play activity and location), and the age and sex of the children involved. The results showed that children who were engaged in cooperative or associative play, or who used verbal strategies of reasoning and negotiation were more successful in their resolutions. The data also included a large number of potential conflicts that failed to develop into full conflicts and conflicts in which a third child intervened to offer a solution. In the interviews, children reported that they resolve their conflicts either because they are friends or because they "use words." The ethnographic field notes provided evidence of communication, conciliation, and caring in the preschool, and suggested a context for defused potential conflicts and spontaneous peer mediation. The conclusion was that children's successful conflict resolution is facilitated in a preschool culture of caring, where friendship and "using words" are valued and practiced by both adults and children. The results suggest further research on children's explicit meanings and the context of conflicts. The findings will also offer teachers insights into ways to encourage successful resolution of peer conflicts in the early childhood classroom. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 55-08A, Page 2274, 00177 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 112

Author: Wheeler, Walter H.

Year: 1996

Title: Peer Mediation Reduces Conflict

Journal: ERS Successful School Practices

Keywords: peer mediation

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 202

Author: WHITE, GLENN ALEXANDER

Year: 1996

Title: A TWO-YEAR COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PARTICIPANTS AND NONPARTICIPANTS IN A PEER MEDIATION PROGRAM AT MODEL SCHOOL (STUDENTS)

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA

Chairperson: STEVE NAGY

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9633939

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; academic achievement

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based peer mediation program by comparing the discipline referrals, grade point averages, absences, self-concepts, attitudes toward conflict, and teacher perceptions of students who chose to participate and students who chose not to participate in the Peer Mediation Program at Model School. A total of 97 students participated in this study. There were 46 students in the comparison group and 51 students in the intervention group. Information on grade point averages, absences, and discipline referrals was gathered over the three school calendar years of 1992-1993, 1993-1994, and 1994-1995. Information on student attitudes about conflict, self-concept, and teacher ratings of students was gathered at the end of the school calendar year of 1994-1995. Data analyses utilized split-plot multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. Ten of 12 null hypotheses were rejected. Intervention students improved their grade point average and reduced their discipline referrals and school absences when compared with the comparison group. Intervention students also had more positive attitudes toward conflict resolution. The data strongly support the effectiveness of conflict resolution for improving student performance. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 57-06A, Page 2374, 00083 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 317

Author: Williams, S.

Year: 1991

Title: We Can Work It Out

Journal: Teacher Magazine: 22-23

Notes: Reference from P. Deguise

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 318

Author: Willis, S.

Year: 1993

Title: Helping Students Resolve Conflict

Journal: Update: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: 3-8

Notes: Reference from P.Deguise

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 203

Author: WILSON, LORALEE J.

Year: 1998

Title: CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAMS AND THE HOUSTON INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT: PEER MEDIATION VS. NON-PEER MEDIATION APPROACHES FOR RESOLVING STUDENT CONFLICT IN ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOLS

University: UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE

Adviser: MCMULLEN, MICHAEL

Number of Pages: 91

Type of Work: Thesis, MA

Accession Number: AAT 1393022

Keywords: Subject: SOCIOLOGY, GENERAL; EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, SECONDARY

Abstract: This investigation is an exploratory comparison of peer mediation and non peer mediation conflict resolution programs in 25 Houston schools and the change in the number of in-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions, expulsions and total number of disciplinary actions. By contrasting pretest and posttest figures one year before and one year after the conflict resolution programs began, it was determined that more investigation is necessary. Limitations of existing research, in conjunction with extreme posttest findings for the 'success' of peer mediation programs, warrant further study in order to eliminate the

possible effects of confounding variables on the four dependent variables. Author

Notes: MAI 37/03, p. 814, Jun 1999. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Report

Record Number: 113

Author: Wilson-Brewer, R.; Cohen, S.; O'Donnell, L.; Goodman, I. F.

Year: 1991

Title: Violence prevention for young adolescents: a survey of the state of the art

City: Washington, D.C

Institution: Carnegie Council On Adolescent Development, Carnegie Corporation of New York

Date: September 1991

Type: working paper

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 204

Author: WISARD, ROBIN L.

Year: 1998

Title: EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION AND TEACHER EFFICACY: THE CASE OF THREE URBAN CLASSROOM TEACHERS IMPLEMENTING CONFLICT RESOLUTION

University: THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAG9826284

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate and examine how the beliefs, perceptions, thinking, decision-making, and behaviors--teachers' sense of efficacy--of classroom teachers influenced the meaning of their experiences during the implementation of the innovation of Conflict Resolution. A secondary focus examined how urban classroom teachers used skills acquired in a Conflict Resolution program to facilitate the resolution of interpersonal conflicts among students. This year long study was conducted in two elementary schools and one middle school in an urban area in northeastern Ohio and actively involved a second grade teacher, a fifth grade teacher, and a seventh grade teacher. The principals of the three schools played a minor role. Five methods of assessment were used: interviews with each teacher three times during the school year, three classroom observations of each teacher, reflective journal entries of each teacher, one interview with each building principal, and a final focus group interview at the end of the research. Qualitative research using the case study method was utilized to examine the findings. Analysis of the data indicated teachers have had particular background experiences at school and elsewhere which have shaped their perceptions on handling interpersonal conflict. Furthermore, knowledge and implementation of innovations create change in teachers in their approach to classroom management. Finally, certain conditions in the school setting transfer to classrooms and serve to encourage or hinder the use of the innovation. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 59-03A, Page 0718, 00221 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Magazine Article

Record Number: 114

Author: Witkin

Year: 1998

Title: Anti-violence efforts show few results

Magazine: U.S. News & World Report

Date: April 6, 1998

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 205

Author: WITT, CORBIN TERRYLL

Year: 1995

Title: THE DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROGRAM IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SETTING (PEER MEDIATION)

University: KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Major Professor: ROBERT SHOOP

Type of Work: Dissertation ED.D.

Accession Number: AAI9544198

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to develop and implement a Conflict Resolution/Peer Mediation Program in an elementary school, and conduct a program evaluation to assess the effectiveness of the program. The formative aspect of the study was conducted to follow the development and implementation of the conflict resolution and peer mediation program in the elementary school, and to make systematic decisions and recommendations regarding development and implementation of the program. An implementation timeline and recommendations for program implementation in other schools are presented. The summative function of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program as measured by a reduction in office referrals and lunch time detention referrals, pre- and post-scores on a student conflict questionnaire, pre- and post scores on a teacher conflict survey, and pre- and post-scores on a lunch supervisor conflict survey. The study also inquired if the program's implementation was perceived as beneficial by teachers, students, and parents.

The results of the study indicated that the program's development and implementation was deemed as effective, and the program did have discernible positive effects on the school environment. The number of office referrals decreased, the number of lunch time referrals decreased, and the students gained significantly in their knowledge of constructive conflict resolution skills. The teachers, peer mediators, parents, and current lunchroom/playground supervisors perceived that conflict in the school environment had decreased. A pre-post comparison of the lunchroom/playground supervisors' perceptions of conflict at lunch time did indicate a significant change; however, the subjects were not uniform from the baseline to the project year. Teachers, peer mediators, parents, and lunchroom/playground supervisors believed that the program was beneficial to the school and the students, and support its continuation in the future. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 56-09A, Page 3409, 00254 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 319

Author: Wright, N. D.

Year: 1994

Title: From Risk to Resilience: The Role of Law-Related Education

City: Chicago, IL

Publisher: American Bar Association

Notes: Reference from D. Crawford

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Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 206

Author: ZAKIERSKI, MARLENE MINICHINO

Year: 1997

Title: PEACE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM: EFFECTS ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' AND STUDENTS' COMMUNICATION, AFFIRMATION, COOPERATION, AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION INTERACTIONS

University: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY

Mentor: THERESA CICCHELLI

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9809027

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY; EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING

Abstract: The present study sought to determine the effects of the Peace Maintenance System (PMS) on teacher and student communication, affirmation, cooperation, and conflict resolution interactions prior to and after training and implementation, as measured by the Peace Maintenance Observational Category Scale (PMOCS), the guided teacher dialogue journals, and the guided student reflective journals. The basic PMS objectives were to: view conflict as a way of growing through interactions, understand that problem solving is the best way to solve a conflict, work cooperatively in order to seek viable solutions to conflict, and understand and respect another's perspective in a conflict situation. Treatment consisted of 16 activity lessons implemented over a 4-week period and equally divided into four distinct domains: communication, affirmation, cooperation, and conflict resolution. Data for this study were collected from 71 students from three third-grade elementary public school classes and their respective female teachers (n = 3) in a culturally diverse setting within Westchester County, New York. Triangulation of data was utilized. The data collected from the results of the PMOCS were statistically analyzed for interrater reliability by using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and teacher-student interactions within each domain by utilizing t-test procedures. A two-way ANOVA of the PMOCS yielded a summary result for each PMS domain. The results of the frequencies of teacher and student interactions indicated a significant average gain of: 68.67 within the communication domain, 70.89 within the affirmation domain, 33.77 within the cooperation domain, and 61.44 within the conflict resolution of the PMOCS. Content analyses of the reflective journals also produced significant results for each of the four domains. In sum, the data and content analyses demonstrated that the majority of the teachers and students understood the goals of each PMS domain, substantiating the findings of the significance of the interactions studied in this investigation. The findings of this study have implications for curriculum development and instructional methodologies for elementary teachers and students for the successful implementation of a violence prevention and conflict resolution program in an urban setting where teachers and students come from different cultures, ethnic groups, and linguistic backgrounds. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-09A, Page 3410, 00419 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 207

Author: ZHANG, QUANWU

Year: 1992

Title: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS: A CONFIRMATORY APPROACH TO TESTING DEUTSCH'S THEORY OF COOPERATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

University: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

ADVISER: Sponsor: MORTON DEUTSCH

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9221236

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL

Abstract: Numerous studies have accumulated testing Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution since his initial study in 1948. However, it has only recently become possible to test the theory at an integrative level, such that the intricate relationships among a large number of variables can be investigated simultaneously. Through integrative testing, possible intervening processes and/or common causes among effects and outcomes may be explicitly identified. The confirmatory structural modeling approach developed by Joreskog (1973) provides a powerful tool for this type of theory testing. Utilizing an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school undertaken by Deutsch, the present study is designed both to test Deutsch's theory by confirmatory structural modeling and to evaluate the intervention. Most previous field experiments were focused on cooperative learning. The social psychological consequences of constructive conflict resolution, particularly their implications in education, have rarely been systematically studied in a real school setting. This study indicates that positive changes in interpersonal relations, indicated by constructive conflict resolution, lead to higher academic achievement, and that this effect is mediated by increased internal locus of control. In general, the results from our theory testing show that constructive conflict resolution, and possibly effective group working, have a positive impact on a student's interpersonal relations which are measured by his/her social support and victimization. Consequently, this impact leads to positive changes in the student's self-esteem, loss of control, mental and physical health, and academic achievement. In addition, some of these social psychological and educational changes may further enhance the student's ability to handle conflicts constructively and to solve problems more effectively when working with his/her group members. The evaluation study has indicated that when cooperative learning is introduced together with conflict resolution training, students may be able to work most effectively in groups. Issues regarding multiple structural modelings with a large number of variables in one study are discussed; a number of suggestions are made in the paper. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 53-06B, Page 3214, 00311 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 115

Author: Zhang, Quanwu

Year: 1994

Title: An Intervention Model of Constructive Conflict Resolution and Cooperative Learning

Journal: Journal of Social Sciences 50(1): 99-116

Keywords: constructive conflict resolution, cooperative learning

Notes: +

 

Reference Type: Academic Paper

Record Number: 208

Author: ZUCCA-BROWN, SANDRA

Year: 1997

Title: AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MEDIATION PROGRAM: ITS EFFECT ON STUDENT MEDIATORS AND SCHOOL VIOLENCE (PREVENTION)

University: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY

Adviser: LESLIE SKINNER

Type of Work: Dissertation Ph.D.

Accession Number: AAG9738020

Keywords: DESCRIPTORS: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY; EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY; PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL; EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY

Abstract: This study examined the effect of peer mediation training and experience (conducting mediations) on the child mediator's self-esteem, social skills and attitudes toward conflict. In addition, the impact of the peer mediation program on the number of discipline referrals, detentions, and suspensions was evaluated. Teachers' perceptions of the program were reviewed through the use of an informal survey. Lastly, an additional purpose of the study was to analyze the success of the mediations through the use of signed mediation agreements between disputants. Subjects for this research included a total of 44, 5th and 6th grade children from two elementary schools within the same district. Twenty-two children participated in a five-day workshop on peer mediation and subsequently conducted mediations within their school. Twenty-two compatible students were semi-randomly assigned to a control group, in which there was no treatment. Both groups of children completed the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale, the Social Skills Rating System, and the School Mediation Program Trainee Questionnaire before peer mediation training in May 1995 and again in December 1995. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was implemented, using a pre and post test design, to test for differences in the results of the control and treatment group's scores on the above-mentioned instruments. Chi Square analysis was employed, using a pre and post test design, to examine the number of disciplinary referrals, detentions, and suspensions. Test results were analyzed at the.05 level of significance. In summary, the findings indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in the social skills, self-esteem and attitudes toward conflict of the peer mediators versus non peer mediators. The number of children given detentions as well as the total number of detentions significantly deceased after implementation of the program. Tendencies toward significance were also evident when examining the number of children referred to the Vice Principal and the total number of disciplinary referrals after the program began. Ninety-six percent of mediations ended in a signed agreement and 3.8% resulted in no agreement. Eighty percent of the teachers surveyed agreed that peer mediation helped students learn to solve conflicts amongst themselves as opposed to always going to an adult for the answers. Author

Notes: DAI, VOL. 58-06A, Page 2077, 00137 Pages. The dissertation citations and abstracts contained here are published with permission of Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

 

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Updated: February 10, 2000